Tagged: convention center

A Primer on International Association Conferences and Events – Who They Are, What Countries and Cities They Select as Event Locations and, How Do They Conduct Business

As part of my consulting practice I either subscribe to newsletters regarding the convention and meetings industry or receive news alerts on related subjects. There are many, and hardly a week goes by when there is not one or more press releases celebrating a city’s booking of an important international event. These are not usual press releases but often newspaper and business journal articles. The articles are all very upbeat as if the city convention bureau had just won a lucrative piece of international business in a very competitive contest.  Articles usually conclude with a statement validating the city’s status and place in the world as an international city.

What Are International Association Events?

Market Definition and Size – For this article International association meetings and conferences are owned and operated by not-for profit professional associations. Some of the international event names may sound familiar to you:

  • The World Congress of Surgery
  • Congress of the World Federation of Physical Therapy
  • World Diabetes Congress
  • Parliament of the World’s Religions
  • World Conference on Lung Cancer
  • World  Parkinson’s Congress

These associations are recognized as “international” and vetted by the Union of International Associations (UIA). They are carried by the Yearbook of International Organizations (a UIA publication). UIA defines the events or meetings as such:

Meetings taken into consideration include those organized and/or sponsored by the international organizations which appear in the Yearbook of International Organizations and in the International Congress Calendar, i.e. the sittings of their principal organs, congresses, conventions, symposia, regional sessions grouping several countries, as well as some national meetings with international participation organized by national branches of international associations.

In their report, UIA’s international event numbers for 2014 were 12,350. The events in 2014 would play in one of 178 countries and 1,449 cities. The top ten countries and cities for 2015 are shown below:



UIA’s annual International Meetings Statistics Report 57th edition – June 2016 categorizes the events using statistics such as:

  • Whether the event is “ organized or sponsored by “international organizations”, i.e. international  non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) that are included in the UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations and whose details are subject to systematic collection and updates on an annual basis by the UIA”
  • Dates and Location
  • Size (expressed as number of participants or attendees)
  • Percentage of international attendees (40% minimum).

The last bullet above is important because it is the basis for establishing value when compared to domestic events. UIA also maintains a history of each event’s location back to 2001. This date range of event history is essential for determining predictable rotation patterns and calculating probabilities for successful bookings. The only shortcoming we find in the UIA material is that some events are in fact regional. An example is an international association which is in fact a European only association. Their annual conferences will never occur in Asia, Africa, Australia or the Americas. Therefore the UIA summary statistics related to international events not limited to regions are probably overstated.

There are other association and event directories such as the International Convention Centre Association (ICCA). In comparing to UIA there are big differences which we believe are related to the definition of international association events. For our purposes the UIA statistics are the most comprehensive and reliable directory of international events. Clearly any CVB or convention center pursuing events in this market would have to research and drill down in order to eliminate the improbable and focus on the possible. We believe UIA can provide this information. Their research findings and data base is available for a fee (about $1,500). You can also have research available on a continuous basis for a subscriber fee.


Bookings for International Events Comparing North American Cities to the Rest of the World

Without purchasing or referencing UIA’s publications, we were able to find some useful directories which show how competitive North American cities are in booking international events. In this instance we found some timely statistics in two sources:

  • The OMICS International Conferences website https://www.omicsonline.org/international-scientific-conferences/ . OMICS International organizes as many as 1,000 International Science conferences. These conferences attract world renowned personalities, scientists, entrepreneurs, budding scientists, students and policy makers. OMICS International organizes Science Congress, World Summits, and International science conferences in India, USA, Dubai, Australia and Europe. OMICS also publishes scientific journals for some of the international associations.

The tables below show the number and percentage for individual countries and cities for international scientific, medical and health science and engineering  conferences produced in 2016 (later half) and 2017. There are no social or behavioral science events listed. These type events are the most prestigious of international conferences. Overall there are 933 events combined from both sources.




The data in the tables above, because they represent such a small amount of years, lack strong statistical validity and don’t compare with the long term, more comprehensive data that could be obtained by consulting UIA’s data base and research files. The tables above are useful and interesting because they infer how strong the US is in the scientific fields as well as showing destination appeal for the US and certain US cities.

What Criteria Do these Associations Consider in Making Event Location and Venue Decisions?

In many respects the criteria are similar to the criteria used for a tradeshow or domestic association meeting. There are however differences especially the priority of certain criteria. From the literature and case studies we researched, these are the principal and secondary criteria that are evaluated in making event location decisions:

  • Air Transport Accessibility
    • Direct flights from major centrally located cities
    • Cost, Frequency and Duration of Flights – Includes information of necessary connecting flights
    • Administrative Barriers – Visa and customs issues
  • Local Support
    • Welcoming assistance from the local association chapter and other prominent like-professionals and academics. Some cities have gone much further than an opportunistic one-off effort. The term “Ambassador Program” has taken hold. It is defined as a loose association of community leaders in advanced industries and scientific fields used to attract conventions in their specific field. This type of collaboration has been around for many years but in the past few years destinations around the world are now developing the concept more strategically and aggressively. Many European cities have well developed Ambassador Organizations. Washington DC and Vancouver have initiated similar programs and report that they are already yielding success. This program also assumes networking possibilities with local industry leaders.
    • Planning, logistic and marketing support from the city CVB
  • Subventions (subsidies)
    • Perhaps this should be listed first. Those operators in CVBs and convention centers to whom I have spoken with agree that this decision making criteria is the most important. Typical subventions are; meeting venue rent free, free hotel accommodations and meals for association leadership, direct subsidy for marketing and other general expenses, a hosted reception and dinner provided by the hosting city or institution ( a research university is a good example), loans for marketing before registration fees are received,  arranged excursions for city tourist sites and venues and shopping.
  • Meeting facilities
    • Number, size and configuration of meeting rooms
    • Appearance of the meeting rooms
    • Special services – Advanced A/V, simultaneous translation systems, F&B catering quality
    • Advanced communications – Broadband services (WiFi), reliable cell service
    • Customer service by venue staff
  • Other
    • The novelty and cultural uniqueness of the city
    • Safety and security of the city
    • A pleasant climate
    • Hotel proximity to meeting venue
    • Profitability – At some point the international association is going to take a serious look at how profitable the event would be at a given location. This process and evaluation would take place after a review of proposals.
    • Association promotion – The association’s main interest is whether the chosen location would add credibility and prestige to the association and build membership.

Clearly any CVB or convention center pursuing events in this market would have to research and drill down in order to eliminate the improbable and focus on the possible. We believe UIA can provide this information. Their research findings and data base is available for a fee (about $1,500). You can also have research available on a continuous basis for a subscriber fee.

Determining the Economic Value of an International Event

  • Direct Spending
    Determining economic value is becoming more reliable over the past few years. For cities such as Las Vegas this data is fundamental – so much of the economy depends on it.  Also the due diligence required to finance the substantial physical infrastructure projects (airports improvements, public assembly venues, streets and transportation, general civic improvements) demands it. Most cities have an established direct spending figure for trade shows and convention visitors. The figure is derived from surveys and interviews of out-of-town visitors. No city conducts this research in as timely and comprehensive fashion as Las Vegas.For this brief analysis the percentage difference between a foreign and domestic visitor as reported in Las Vegas will be applied. In Las Vegas the percent difference in direct spending is as follows:


The cause for higher International visitor spending is that they stay longer (about 1 day longer, 4.3 vs. 3.3 days) and they spend more. For example, an international visitor spends more than 100% on food and beverages, 250% more shopping and about 50% on entertainment (live shows). One outlier on visitor spending in Las Vegas which doesn’t exist in most US cities is gambling.

The suggestion here is that this or a similar percentage increase be applied when evaluating the value of international events. That is of course unless your city has conducted its own research. Las Vegas is in all cases a good reference check for spending differences and for research methods. Most cities will go on to parse and apply other economic benefits such as indirect spending, tax revenues, or service job creation to arrive at an overall impact number.

  • The Prestige Factor
    This factor is crucial for cities just developing or improving their tourism economy. International conference, congress and convention goers are business tourists. This adds a gravitas feature to the whole tourism sector. It gives an opportunity for the city and country to show off their airports, urban infrastructure as well as their hospitality sector – hotels, resorts, restaurants, conference and convention facilities, etc. In our research we found this to be often a national cause. Ireland, Cyprus, Malaysia and Korea’s national tourism branches of government all provide generous contributions to their cities and venues to use as subventions in order to attract international events. In sum, hosting international events fulfills national policy aims for recognition as a place to for global business. Global engagement is serious business.For US cities the prestige factor is present but not so pronounced. Some cities have been organized well and have succeeded in capturing a good fraction of the international events market – Chicago, Atlanta, San Antonio, Las Vegas and Philadelphia. For others the industrial sector of an international event may represent a vertical market that represents the city’s economic base. In this respect international events can contribute to economic development of an emerging knowledge based industry.

If you’re Going to Pursue International Conferences, then……..

  •  Do Proper Research First
    •  Understand that you’re entering a global competition with many more competitors, some with a great deal of experience. Know that your probability of booking success will be very low at first.
    • Look for events with recognizable rotation patterns. See when they rotate to the US and learn where in the US they’ve played before. Be careful of associations that have no pattern but choose locations at random.
    • Find what fits – airport/travel scheduling and issues, dates, space, space configurations, sector affinity with your city. The preferred venues are hotels. The cozy, more intimate surroundings are preferable to convention centers. Also, international events tend to be smaller than domestic.
    • Do the math. Prepare some simulations. Use actual attendance data from 5 or more international conferences and calculate the economic impact of the event. Make certain that your estimate of international attendees seems reasonable. Highlight the value added for international attendees.
    • Don’t expect large crowds. Yes, there are some with recorded attendance of 10,000 up to 18,000. These events are not the norm however. They are mostly well under 5,000 attendees.
  • If Your Intention Is to Pursue International Events at Full Bore, You Will Have to Add to Staff and Increase Certain Expenses
    •  Staff will most likely include a sales manager and assistant, a research manager and an office administrator. You could possibly contract out the research function.
    • Expenses besides salary will have to include separate T&E, higher than for domestic bookings, print and graphic services, and a promotional fund to fulfill subventions. About two years ago Washington DC organized to pursue international events. They staffed up in the fashion described above and went to work. In four years the economic impact from international events went from $2.5M in 2011 to $25.5M in 2015.
    • If this seems too much or even unnecessary, perhaps a better strategy is to be selective and pursue only the most profitable and economically favorable international events
  •  Be Prepared for a Heavy Work Load
    •  Canvassing and pursuing eligibility for RFPs is time consuming and can be expensive. Click on the link to view an RFP for an international event – The World Federation of the Deaf. https://www.wfdeaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/WFDConf_2017.pdf
    • Preparing your proposal and negotiating until closing is also time consuming and expensive. As an example, click on the link for Barcelona’s proposal for The Conference of The International Biometric Society – http://www.biometricsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ibs-2018-bid.pdf . This conference only has about 1,200 attendees.
    • Organizing, maintaining and nurturing the Ambassador group, which appears to be a prerequisite for competing, takes a great deal of relationship building and persuasion. Your sales and marketing team will ultimately end up managing the group and acting as their administrative arm. Your team will at times perform most of the functions that a domestic trade show or convention management company would.
  •  Be Thoughtful about How You Will Deal with Subventions
    •  You won’t be subsidized by the federal government but in order to get a start in the market you may have to agree to subventions you would normally avoid. For small events the subventions are hard to justify. If your occupancy is high and the domestic event market filled with opportunities, then there is no compelling need to agree to expensive subventions. It would be best todisclosethis before entering a competitive bid. Rather, emphasize subventions which can be classifiedasvalue added and steer away from a straight cash subsidy.
    • An interesting study of subventions was done by a consulting group in the UK in 2011. The report shows how subventions are material to location decisions and how they affect the competition for international events. You should click on the link below, download and read the report:
    •  http://www.businessvisitsandeventspartnership.com/news/bvep-press-releases/112-bvep-launch-report-into-global-subvention-practices
    •  The chart below is from the report and is a summary (although dated) of city practices regarding subventions. It’s a good quick reference.



Providing Air Conditioning and Heat on Exhibit Floors during Event Move In

This is a troublesome issue and always has been. Most recently the subject found itself on the agenda for an annual SISO meeting. My first impression was that SISO would take a policy stand, making it a critical customer service issue and pressing that air conditioning during move in should be provided at no charge. After a brief discussion with SISO leadership I learned that there is no formal SISO policy announcement and that there was true recognition and appreciation for a convention center’s high utility and operating costs.

Convention center designers have never really addressed this problem seriously or more likely, measures to make the event move in environment more tolerable were value engineered out of the project. The problem is generally widespread throughout the country from humidity prone, to bitter cold, to desert heat regions alike.

Why Is this Issue?  It Seems Small Compared to All that Matters

  • Excessive Heat and Humidity or Cold During Move In Is a Serious Customer Service Problem
    Exhibitors face many challenges during event move in; anticipating freight arrival, exhibit construction, testing equipment, final rehearsals, etc. Adding the annoyance of excessively hot or cold and uncomfortable conditions is poor customer service.
  • Providing Air Conditioning During Move In Is Very Expensive During the Summer
    Commercial electrical rate schedules are higher for summer months. In New York City for example peak months are June through September. Along with peak months there are peak hours. Utilities call this time of day rates covering daytime periods generally 8AM to 4 or 6PM, Monday through Friday (weekday holidays normally excluded). These rates .for electrical consumption (KWH) can be 30% -50% higher than non-peak hours.Electrical demand rates are also applied in the same manner as consumption. Depending on where you’re located, commercial demand rates can be 60% to more than 100% higher than demand rates during non-peak months.


  1. (Atlanta) Georgia Power – Large Commercial Rates – Summer TOD 

    Assume air conditioning requires 4,000 Tons of refrigeration for 500,000 gross square feet of exhibition space on a weekday in July

                    Consumption (KWH): 4,000 Tons x 1.5 KW/Ton = 6,000 KW
6,000 KW x 10 hours = 60,000 KWH
60,000 KWH x $.07264/KWH = $4,358/Day

                    Demand (KW): 6,000 KW x $10.43/KW = $62,580*

                    Total Cost per Day: $4,358 + $62,580 = $66,938

*Demand charges only apply if the day’s demand (in a 15 or 30 minute interval) is
the highest for the monthly billing period. Fuel adjustment charges not in

  1. (New York City) NYPA and ConEd – NYPA for consumption or KWH purchased through the open market (NY is a de-regulated state). Con ED for distribution charges (demand) 

    Assume air conditioning requires 4,000 Tons of refrigeration for 500,000 gross square feet of exhibition space on a weekday in July 

    Consumption (KWH): 5,000 Tons x 1.5 KW/Ton = 6,000 KW
    6,000 KW x 10 hours = 60,000 KWH
    60,000 KWH x $.08/KWH = $4,800/Day 

    Demand (KW): 6,000 KW x $23.04/KW = $138,240* 

    Total Cost per Day: $4,800 + $138,240 = $143,040

             *Demand charges only apply if the day’s demand (in a 15 or 30 minute interval)
is the highest for    the monthly billing period. Taxes and fuel adjustment
charges not in calculations

The rates from Atlanta are relatively low. New York City rates are among the highest in the country. If anything, the above proves that air conditioning during move in days is no small matter. For show managers, paying for electrical consumption during move in is reasonable, paying for demand is not. In my time at the Javits Center I have seen monthly demand charges exceed $250,000. That was for a full building show (over 800,000 gross square feet, in August).  Convention center should never permit a move in day to become the highest day of the billing period for electric demand when it could be avoided.

  • Most Show Managers Can Understand the Economics of Peak Hour Costs for Electrical Consumption But Not So for Electrical Demand 

    Most annual convention center budgets have forecasted and factored in summer electrical demand charges. Facility managers know that there are not many opportunities for demand reduction measures like shedding loads as demand rises after the event begins. Seizing an opportunity to reduce summer demand charges therefore should not be missed. Imagine being in a situation where the move in day is hot and humid but the overnight forecast calls for a cool dry air mass for the event days. Imagine being in a situation where the move in day is on a Friday in July and the event is scheduled for a three day weekend with Monday as a holiday – no demand charges.  The monthly savings can be substantial. From time to time an issue may arise where at the last minute a show manager asks for air conditioning on a move in day well after peak hour pricing has begun. Facility managers do not want to start a central plant (chillers, pumps, air handlers, etc.) during peak hours. Doing so puts you at risk that a move in day will become the maximum billing day for demand that month, the savings opportunity lost. Chiller plants normally draw a lot of demand as they approach the chilled water set point. After they reach that point, demand generally diminishes. In this circumstance you would have to provide less than 100%.

Recommended Best Practices

  • Unless there are special circumstances you are advised not to provide air conditioning or heat during move in to event management at no charge. Most centers do charge. Some such as Mandalay Bay and the Mirage Convention Centers in Las Vegas provide air conditioning at no charge for the last event move in day. Some of you to whom I have spoken with say that at their center this matter is purposely left flexible. That may be a useful internal policy but it should be kept confidential, because the opposite is likely to happen, it won’t be flexible. Show managers are tough negotiators; they will sense an opportunity and persuade you to absorb the cost. There should be a clear written policy for charging for air conditioning and heat on move in days
  • Do not make air conditioning and heat during move in part of the rent. Too often rent is negotiated down in order to maintain and improve market share or to accommodate a large event where the overall economic impact is very high. Also, there are circumstances where temperature and humidity ranges need to be controlled during move in. A commercial produce show is an example. Air conditioning charges during move in should be specified as a separate item in the license agreement,
  • Make the charges for air conditioning and heat during move ins fair, enough to cover consumption charges from utilities,
  • Always supply some air conditioning, say 15% with exhaust fans and a few supply fans at no charge. Set a floor temperature goal of the low to mid 80’s for floor temperatures. For heating, do likewise and supply heat from air handlers adjacent to outside freight doors at no charge.
  • Take steps to manage demand on your own:
    • If the show manager won’t purchase air conditioning for move in days when high heat and humidity are forecast, pre-cool the space several hours before the move in starts and when non-peak rates are in effect. Keep the freight doors closed, close outside air dampers as no fresh air is necessary until the space is occupied. Then just before peak rates apply, reduce most of the air conditioning operations and follow the practices from the bullet above.ASHRAE has written a few white papers on pre-cooling. Below is an excerpt:

      Night precooking involves the circulation of cool air within a building during the nighttime hours with the intent of cooling the structure. The cooled structure is then able to serve as a heat sink during the daytime hours, reducing the mechanical cooling required. The naturally occurring thermal storage capacity of the building is thereby utilized to smooth the load curve and for potential energy savings.

      My experience is that this works for about 5 or 6 hours. Some level of air conditioning will may have to be left on.

    • If show management elects to purchase air conditioning for move in days, then pre-cool as outlined above only earlier. Do not commit to a floor temperature in the low to mid 70’s, the high 70’s and low 80’s are more achievable. On hot humid days this will also prevent ceiling drips from pipe and ductwork condensation. Pre-cooling should wash the humidity out of the building and provide positive pressure throughout. This should work to control electric demand. This should be done along with the items below regarding doors.
    • Exercise strict control over the freight doors. Close those that are not being well used. You should find most general decorating companies cooperative.
    • Consider transparent weather strips at the most used doors. They are an inexpensive fix but usually need to be changed frequently to maintain good visibility.
  • Investments that Work
    • The Washington DC Convention Center normally does not charge for air conditioning during move in days. To control costs they have converted their freight doors into “speed doors”
    • Washington has also connected one or two of their large chillers to an on-site generator. They can elect to air condition exhibit floors using their own power, avoiding peak hour consumption and demand costs.
    • Some may say that air curtains work but my experience has been that the large ones for freight doors are too drafty and noisy
    • Years ago designers at Cobo Hall designed a transition space between the loading dock doors and the exhibit floor. The barrier of a demising wall and inline freight doors helps temperature control on the exhibit floor.
    • In the 1990’s McCormick Place made a major investment in chilled water storage, producing chilled water at night and circulating it for a full days use. They also supply chilled water to other customers beyond the convention center. McCormick also uses Lake Michigan water for condenser water, no cooling towers.

9/11 at the Javits Center

Last week marked 15 years. We know now that the attack wasn’t just a one-time thing and now all convention centers have legitimate concerns about terrorism during an event. The Javits Center was a few miles from the attack but we had a view of the planes hitting and the WTC towers falling. The Javits Center did play a role in the aftermath, providing logistical support to the rescue, recovery and security teams. I believe we were able to use our assets effectively and in a small way contribute to the recovery effort.

The account below was written by me 6 years ago.

M. McGrane

Over the years many have asked if we could write an account of what happened to us that day. Our experience was insignificant compared to the events of that day, but perhaps there’s some lessons learned here if not an interesting story.

We had four events in the house that day; a large merchandise show on the lower level to open at 9AM, a store fixture and display show on the main level to open at 9:30AM, a commercial flower show also on the main level for the second move in day, and set up for a product roll out for an office technology company on the upper level. After the first plane hit at 8:45 AM the AGM called and told me he had a bad feeling about it, no one flies into the side of the World Trade Center on a bright clear day.  Neither the local news nor CNN which was being broadcast on all public monitors had any news on the real cause. The AGM called again and insisted that I go up to the Crystal Palace and view what was occurring downtown and in the center itself. I was at the base of the escalator to the Crystal Palace at 9:03 AM.  The view from the Javits Center had the two Trade Center towers overlapping so, if you weren’t familiar, it may appear as one large building. The second plane hit. The horizontal plume of flame and smoke made it look as if this was a secondary explosion from the first plane. CNN quickly corrected that. Both towers were aflame.

A quick meeting with all the show managers was assembled and we informed them that we were shutting down the loading docks and that there would be controlled access through the front entrances – attendees would have to go through designated doors under the view of Javits Security and State Police. There would be random checks of handbags and brief cases. We set a meeting time for 30 minutes later or sooner if we obtained any information. There were few questions and no one complained. Although unsaid, I believe everyone in the meeting had the sense that something menacing and ominous was going on downtown. It was about 9:20 AM.

Internal staff met for a time to organize radio procedures and to review evacuation plans. There was still no official word from the State Police about what was happening. All news came from CNN. We had arranged the show floor plans and compared them to the evacuation routes just before we made our way to the next information meeting with the show managers when CNN reported that the Pentagon had been hit. It was about 9:45 AM.

The big decisions were easy now and the meeting was brief. We would evacuate the center immediately; exhibitors, attendees and contractors were to follow the directions of Javits Security and the State Police since due to the loading dock closure some of the routes had changed. We would meet with show managers again as soon as practical. Everyone nodded in consent and the meeting ended. At 10:05 AM the South Tower collapsed and we saw everything disappear in an enormous cloud of dust. By 10:15 AM the Javits Center was evacuated. We estimate there were between 5,000 to 6,000 people. Then, at 10:28 AM the North Tower collapsed.

In the following hour tidbits of news and rumors came and went. We had a short lived moment of panic when news came down that the bridges and tunnels were likely targets too. The south tube of the Lincoln Tunnel was 25 feet below Hall 1A. The State Police quickly communicated with Port Authority Police and we learned that the Tunnel was evacuated and inspected. We were safe. Staff was dismissed and key people were selected to remain. Many volunteered to stay. At 11:02, the mayor ordered the evacuation of Lower Manhattan. What was happening was unbelievable.

At about noon, city emergency service personnel arrived and asked for help. They were covered in dust and soot. The only clean part of their faces was inside the outline of the face masks that they had been wearing. They needed to set up a triage center and a field hospital as soon as possible. While we explored the internet for plans, building maintenance staff quickly began to set up portable utilities, lighting and furnishings in the North Pavilion. Within the hour a medical team arrived. They left shortly afterward and headed off downtown. The casualties and injured would be handled closer to the WTC site. At about 1 PM one of our managers called me up to the South roof. The scene was like a war movie. A stream of people as far South as I could see were walking North on 12th Ave. From the heights they appeared as a ribbon of refugees fleeing a city under siege. The cloud of smoke from the World Trade Center was behind them.

The remainder of the day saw emergency crews arrive at Javits. At one point in order to create more space, the remaining managers and maintenance personnel took forklifts and hand trucks to move out the partially installed exhibit booths from the commercial flower show on the main level. Emergency crews came from New Jersey, that evening teams of “smoke jumpers” arrived from out West, teams of rescue dogs and their handlers arrived from all across the country and Canada, a large contingent of New York State Troopers arrived and finally the New York State National Guard. Our team set out utilities; electric, phone lines, internet lines, portable showers, etc., etc. Centerplate’s GM was busy too. That evening he prepared over 300 chicken and rice dinners. He had sent all his employees home and did this all by himself.

The next few days were like a blur. Rescue teams came and went. Javits became the storehouse for supplies, lots of bottled water and pet supplies for the dogs. We were announced as the rallying point for volunteers and they came by the thousands; tradesmen carrying tools, doctors carrying their medical kits, even a few crazies. The only volunteers needed that I recall were operating room nurses and welders trained for work in confined spaces. The President arrived one day to meet with the families of the dead and missing. A planned 1 hour visit became a 5 hour visit.

We learned that nothing can replace a well trained team of managers and skilled workers. We learned how invaluable it is to have permanently stationed police on site. It gives your actions in an emergency a strong sense of legitimacy. Convention center designers should remember that. We learned that convention centers because of their scale, large spaces, utility capacity and access are logical places to use when there’s a general emergency.  I know it sounds trite because it’s so often said, but we learned that people really do rise to the occasion when necessary and with a spirit I hadn’t seen before. We learned that trouble creates its own capacity to handle it.

God Bless America.

Starting and Expanding Advertising and Sponsorships as a Revenue Stream

Why Is this a Good Idea?

I have often been confused why more convention centers do not actively engage in an advertising and sponsorship program as a revenue stream. Perhaps it’s viewed as a business more appropriate for others; sports and entertainment venues are the logical setting for advertising and sponsorships, not convention centers. Sports stadiums and arenas and their tenant teams – football, baseball, basketball, hockey, etc., all have a loyal fan base and fans are very emotionally connected. Television and radio coverage are integral parts of the sports experience. These things don’t exist at convention centers and convention center management may not feel it’s worth the effort. I also believe there’s reluctance by some convention center management to use ad space and media that were once exclusive domain of event managers and then, charge fees and commissions for features that were once free.

My belief is that if convention centers who feel this way would conduct a thoughtful evaluation of the benefits and risks, they may change their minds.

Benefits – A well crafted ad and sponsorship program:

  • Contributes a level of legitimacy with respect to the convention center being a place of business, where new products and services are rolled out and demonstrated in a setting where comparisons can be made, where deals are done, where technical and scientific information exchanged, and where like minded professionals can network and socialize.
  • Strengthens the business relationships with others in the city hospitality sector. Restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, shopping districts, and other cultural and entertainment venues are likely advertising and sponsorship candidates. Having the relationship solidified by an advertising agreement helps achieve that. The character of the relationship would be different; it won’t be casual or shallow anymore, it will now be business.
  • Can become a reliable revenue source which may waver up and down with the vagaries of the economy but can grow in stable and growth years. There are a few convention centers where an advertising and sponsorship program has contributed between $1 – 2 million to the bottom line annually.


  • Know that many times brands are judged by the company they keep; remember this, it will come up again. Many times an advertiser or sponsor’s business issues, such as product problems, legal issues, and financial problems become your problems. This is especially true if it’s a naming rights sponsor. Choose potential advertisers and sponsors wisely. Understand that advertisers and especially sponsors may view the convention center similarly. Convention centers are accountable to them for bad publicity and for routine items such as signage and website maintenance, or for the overall condition of the facility. Sponsors too will always be interested in their return on investment and review the returns periodically.
  • An overly aggressive ad and sponsorship program can pose some problems with your trade show and association meeting clients; too much signage by advertisers takes away from space available for an event’s trade dress signage and decoration and their own sponsor advertising, inflexible terms regarding advertising and product exclusivity by sponsors may interfere with an events’ exhibitors or their sponsorship sales. Also, critics may argue that over-commercialization with garish signage and endless brand messaging detracts from the convention center’s mission. It’s best to exercise good taste and a sense of propriety here.
  • An advertising and sponsorship program is very visible to others and potential event clients. An ineffective and feeble program where advertisers and sponsors are few detracts from the center’s reputation. If, after evaluation, you do not believe you can achieve revenue goals and visibility then perhaps you should forego the effort.

Taking Stock – What Is Your Inventory of Advertising Possibilities and Media?


  • The Center’s Location – Is it located by and in view of major traffic thoroughfares? If so, call the municipality and obtain a daily traffic count. Pedestrian counts may also be available.
  • The Center’s Architecture – Normally the entrance is a piece of landmark architecture. The curtain walls are high, there is usually an array of light or flag poles along the entrance drive, and the adjacent sidewalks are wide. All are possibilities for banners and signage.
  • Fixed Static or LED Signage (usually located by the center’s entrance) – These signs normally announce the event(s) in-house, but have fixed signage possibilities as part of the sign structure or in the case of an LED sign, use possibilities due to the technology.


  • Center entrance, atrium, lobbies and concourses – All have high curtain walls and space frame features for banner hanging
  • Well trafficked corridors – Recommend a limited number of high quality back-lit signage
  • Center video screens – Large video screens are best located in the expansive entranceways, atriums and lobbies where the scale fits the setting. Smaller video screens are more appropriately located along well trafficked corridors, retail areas, taxi/shuttle bus waiting areas and food courts. The screens are normally part of a network, complete with a control room, equipment room and the capability of running different messaging (pre-programmed) for each screen.
  • Columns in atrium and lobbies
  • Public stair risers – Normally temporary and done with 3M product with adhesive back
  • Escalator side panels and railings
  • Taut cables over escalator wells for banner hanging
  • Displays adjacent to Information and Concierge Stations
  • Ads and wraps at water coolers and phone/tablet charging stations
  • Food Court table tops – Using the same adhesive backed 3M product

Digital/Print –

  • The convention center’s website – Banner ads, column and button ads on the most popular pages (event schedule, public transportation and driving directions and map). A restaurant directory as well as one for hotels, nightclubs and other attractions should be part of the website. Some convention center websites do an excellent job of posting these directories. View the San Diego Convention Center’s restaurant directory:


  • The center’s mobile app
  • The center’s WiFi Portal (opening page)
  • Blogs, newsletters, annual reports, direct mail pieces
  • The center’s social media (Facebook page, Twitter Feeds, Instagram, YouTube, etc.)
  • Exhibitor Manuals and Order Forms


  • Opportunities to publicly display product – A luxury car in the center’s atrium is a good example
  • Collateral reading material and brochures at concierge/information desks
  • Portable cups and napkins in the food courts

Reserving Inventory Exclusively for Events – How much inventory should be reserved for them? The short answer is – any place public that has height and visibility (exterior, curtain walls, light poles, etc.). A well organized center will publish a guide with diagrams showing locations and standards for sign and banner hanging.

Charging Event Management Fees for Advertising Outside of Their Licensed Space – This is an excellent revenue source, at times comprising half of the center’s ad and sponsorship revenue. Most event managers already use most available locations. Besides their own trade dress and directional banners, in many instances they use these locations to sell advertising to their event sponsors, normally in the form of large fabric banners, stair risers, free standing displays, etc. Ten years ago most convention centers permitted events to sell ads to exhibitors using all the aforementioned media and signage without paying location fees to the convention center. I am pleased to see that many convention centers have ceased this practice and now charge fees and commissions. Convention centers which still offer this for free should be well advised to stop the practice. As controversial as it may seem, the architectural prominence and visibility that was created by public investment and the value it creates for such things as advertising banners gives convention centers clear entitlement to reasonable fees. Use of public areas for the sale of advertising to others is normally not part of the event manager’s license agreement. Fees should be a percentage of fees collected by the event managers from their client (say 15%). In the case of public space banners, the percentage arrangement is sometimes not satisfactory. For convention centers, it’s much easier to audit and collect based on size. Exterior banners should be charged a higher rate (say 20%). Ads for other media, such as the Center’s Wifi hotspot “splash” page, use of the Center’s monitors, food court table tops, etc. should be negotiated at market prices.

What’s the Difference between Sponsorships and Advertising?

A corporate sponsorship is a form of marketing where companies connect their name, brand, and products and services to a venue for long term in order to enhance their brand, solidify and expand their markets, showcase their products and achieve future profits. It should not be confused with advertising which is direct and overt and contractually a shorter term. In sponsorships, advertising through signage is inclusive, just one element in a sponsorship plan. A well designed sponsorship generates a stronger and more subtle message. It tends to be more qualitative and has loftier goals than just customer exposure and sales. It is a marketing platform where a company can identify with the best aspects of its partner, where a company can build credibility, prestige and, create a more permanent, lasting bond with consumers.

Who Are the Potential Sponsors?

It’s useful to first separate potential sponsors from ad hoc advertisers. Sponsors should be companies that have a tangible connection and can be easily integrated into a convention center’s core business and culture. There are however more subjective considerations. There has to be the proper feel and fit. It’s difficult to define but it comes down to whether the corporate image is one that complements the convention center, the city and vice versa. While the company should obviously be prosperous, they also need to have a certain brand reputation for reliability and quality, and a high corporate standard for civic responsibility.

Certain industries seem to fit as ideal sponsorship candidates. They are; an airline with a regional or national hub at the city’s airport, a major credit card company, a regional bank which has a solid customer and investment base in and around the city, a utility, a major technology/telecommunications company (preferably one that designs and manufactures, and operates equipment), a media company (preferably local newspaper or TV station), a luxury car company and a long standing major employer for the region. If your convention center is large and busy, then a soft drink sponsor, with exclusivity for advertising and product sales (pouring rights), also makes sense.

Some sponsorship marketing consultants, such as Jim Andrews from ESP Properties in Chicago (www.sponsorship.com) favor technology companies above others. His view is that these companies are in a growth mode, spend heavily on marketing and are generally open to venue sponsorships often seeking these opportunities out, particularly sports and entertainment venues. Another consultant, Hugh Wakeham from WAM Associates in Toronto (www.wam.ca/)   believes similarly but also sees regional banks and utilities as excellent candidates.  He described an interesting case study of naming rights where a utility company Enercare has naming rights to the convention center at Exhibition Place in Toronto. Enercare uses this sponsorship to demonstrate and promote Green technologies. On site for instance, windmills generate electricity and electricity, hot water/steam and chilled water are generated by a gas fired Tri-Generation power plant.

Sponsors will of course require something more than company name and brand exposure through signage.  It is useful to have a list of other things that a sponsor could benefit from such as; exposure on your digital media (website, newsletters, blogs, twitter feeds and WiFi portal, etc.), free passes and parking to popular events that they can distribute to employees and clients, free use of public space to show or demonstrate a product, credits for rent, parking and F&B for an event like a corporate sales or board meeting. You may have to be creative here.  As mentioned earlier sponsors pay close attention to their return on investment. There are items the convention center can track on their own such as product sales on site if applicable and hyperlink openings and page views. It is very likely that a sponsor may ask and possibly tie the result to renewal and fee negotiations. In my time at the Javits Center, it was common for our soft drink sponsor, Coke, to conduct a business review and focus on cases sold per year. The Director of Marketing and Communications at the Shaw Centre in Ottawa, Sylvie Carbonneau, described how their luxury car sponsor, Porsche/Audi, tracked sales based on their car displays at the centre.

For convention centers a successful sponsorship consists of cash and/or a capital contribution (which could be cash or in-kind – telecommunications/internet equipment for example), some accommodation for day to day operations (airline ticket credits for business travel or discounted utilities), cooperative marketing when these opportunities come up and a long contract term 3 to 5 years with renewal options.

Who Are the Potential Advertisers?

A quick list should show the categories below and be accompanied by a map denoting walking time from the convention center and headquarter hotel (normally 15-20 minutes):

  • Restaurants – These can be categorized by type of restaurant, ratings of same, price point and distance from major hotels and the convention center
  • Hotels
  • Parking Lots and Garages
  • Shopping
  • Nightclubs
  • Attractions
  • Professional Sports Venues
  • Concert Venues
  • Theaters
  • Cultural Attractions (art galleries, museums, historical sites)
  • Beer
  • Wine

Other advertisers could be car rental companies, an office and hardware retail outlet, exhibit service companies – general decorating companies, exhibit appointed contractors, A/V companies, computer/technical supply retail outlets. Advertisers, especially in categories where there are many like restaurants, are typically put in easy to read directories which accessible through the center’s website, mobile app and WiFi portal. In my experience, advertisers normally didn’t track ROI closely. As with sponsorships, the convention center should track hyperlink openings and page views because it is likely that an advertiser may ask and possibly tie the result to renewal and fee negotiations.


A Sample Pro Forma

For the example below:

  • Sponsor revenue is based on the Javits Center experience and informal conversations with other convention centers in my consulting business.
  • Advertising revenue is based on my time at the Javits Center and price schedules from convention centers published on the internet. The number of restaurants, parking lots, hotels and attractions is based on those published on the Davis L. Lawrence Convention Center (Pittsburgh) website.
  • Revenue obtained from fees for commercial advertising sold by event managers in public areas and video/digital media is estimated based on the Javits Center experience. Assume that the center’s occupancy in this example is high, say 60-65%. It was then estimated that 15 events would sell exhibitor advertising in public areas of the convention center;

10 events  x  $50,000 in sales = $500,000    5 events  x  $75,000 in sales  =  $375,000

$375,000  x  15% fee  =  $56,250                     $375,000  x  15% fee  =  $56,250

$75,000 = $56,250 = $131,250 (estimated total)


*Venue obligation includes;

On-site signage, possibly on-site retail
On site video time – large and small screens
Product exclusivity, possibly advertising exclusivity (w/qualifications)
Website Ad
Social media exposure (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube)
Mobile APP Ad
Rent, F&B, Parking Credits
Free passes to public events
Cost of above –
– Sales Comm – 5%
– Credits (lost revenue) – $5,000


*Venue obligation includes;

Website Directory
Social media exposure (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc.)
Advertising exclusivity for beer and wine
Mobile APP Directory
WiFi portal directory
Concierge/Information Booth Display and Menu Catalog
On site video time large and small screens – not included in 6 mo fee schedule above; pricing should be at premium levels
Cost of above –
– Sales Comm – 10%



How to Get Started – Logical Next Steps

 Assuming you have already weighed the benefits and risks and reviewed the market size for sponsors and advertisers, these are logical next steps:

  1. Obtain price schedules from other convention centers that have an active advertising and sponsorship program in place.
  2. Build your own pricing model
  3. Build a pro forma statement
  4. Determine who will do all the administration and sales work. Understand that the sales work is hard work; developing marketing material, making cold calls, making site visits, and price negotiations. Add to that having patience; it will take more than a year to build revenue. Options are; outsourcing, Integrating the responsibility into existing sales force or add to staff with a new hire
  5. Obtain board approval in the form of a policy statement. This is important for two reasons; board members are a good resource for potential sponsors and advertisers and obtaining advertisers and sponsors may be regulated by government procurement procedures which really do not apply to this business function, board approval may help avoid this.
  6. From the city government, obtain traffic counts and pedestrian counts for adjacent streets and sidewalks. From your website administrator obtain internet traffic statistics. Invest in a survey to develop a demographic profile of attendees who normally come to events at the convention center. Typically they are business men and women between the age of 30 – 45 with a higher than average annual income.
  7. Develop marketing material. The link below from the Shaw Centre in Ottawa is a good example:


  1. Develop a face to face marketing message and a sales plan. The marketing message should be one of optimism, one that emphasizes positive changes such as an expansion or renovation, or an investment in video screens and digital technology, or the organizing of a staff to administer and look after the needs of sponsors. Persuade them of your resolve; show them that there is a parity of commitment, that the convention center has “skin in the game”.
  2. Begin work and monitor progress


All About Convention Center Naming Rights

Establishing Naming Rights Value

It’s easy to be lured into believing that naming rights as a financial bonus for convention centers. Decision makers may be influenced by media reporting and tend to overlook that only the global level deals are reported. They hear about deals like the Barclay Center ( Brooklyn Arena-Brooklyn Net home w/18,000 seats) valued at $200M over 20 years or the American Airlines Center (Home of NBA’s  Dallas Mavericks) for $195M for 30 years. In these instances they must realize that the team’s market area is significant with a fan base which is loyal and reliable and stretches to anywhere television and radio can reach. Still, it’s hard not to think about the possibilities and I believe, beyond the blockbuster deals, at some point linear thinking takes over. They see their hometown arena achieve a significant naming rights deal in a small market area and they start thinking and believing their convention center can do likewise. As an example, the Chesapeake Energy Center in Oklahoma City (home the NBA’s Thunder w/18,000 seats) obtained a naming rights deal of $36M for 12 years. The Cox Convention Center across town has 100,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space and a 15,000 seat arena (w/ minor league hockey and an arena football team) and obtained a naming rights deal valued at $1.7M for 7 years, nothing linear about that. Linear thinking doesn’t work when comparing naming rights values to major league sports.

Linear thinking doesn’t appear to work when comparing the values of existing naming rights deals for convention centers either. If you study the table below you will see that it is very difficult to see any sense using valuation methods (cost, income or market valuation) when it comes to establishing a convention center’s naming rights value. The comparisons are too few, the market sizes and the venue sizes too diverse to see patterns. Additionally some relatively small markets have achieved surprising value; the HY-Vee Exhibition Hall in Des Moines is a good example ($8million with a term of 10 years).

From the current number of naming rights deals (14) the following characteristics are evident:

  • Naming rights deals were closed during or after new, expanded or major renovations took place.
  • The core market areas for most companies holding naming rights are regional. One reason to pursue naming rights is to maintain and solidify the markets they already have. For those who are not historically regional, their eye is on expansion to new regional markets. This was the case for naming rights deals in Niagara Falls, CA – Scotiabank Convention Centre and Ottawa CA – the Shaw Centre.
  • Most are for 2nd tier markets in the US. I am convinced that convention centers in 2nd tier markets in the US are the best naming rights candidates.
  • Proportionally Canadian convention centres are more likely to pursue and successfully close on naming rights in 1st and 2nd tier markets than the US
  • The financial sector (banks, finance companies and insurance) have the highest percentage at 57%, technology companies next at 22%, then utility companies at 14%. At one point an airline held naming rights but that contract has lapsed.
  • About 40% of the naming rights holders were acquired by other companies during the naming rights term. Expect name changes.


What’s in a Name?

For a convention center, I think there’s a whole lot in a name. It may sound trivial and shallow but the sound and the emotional response of a name can result in a name that can be so inappropriate, awkward and some say hideous that it is cause for public embarrassment and ridicule. There are many examples; The KFC YUM! Center in Louisville, Whataburger Field in Corpus Christi, Smoothie King Center in New Orleans and the  Bargain Booze Stadium in the UK.  Fortunately none of these venues is a convention center. One convention center in Des Moines had a naming rights deal with the final name being the Veteran’s Memorial Community Choice Credit Union Convention Center. In my opinion the name is an awkward mouthful. Common sense prevailed in this instance and the exterior sign remained The Veterans Memorial with the longer version seen less prominently in the interior of the facility.

The Inherent Difficulties for 1st Tier US City Convention Centers Pursuing Naming Rights

The success rate shows and I am convinced that convention centers in 2nd and 3rd tier markets in the US are the best naming rights candidates. Not long after new management took over the operation of the Javits Center in 1996, a private conversation regarding Javits progress took place where I was present. .By chance the subject of naming rights came up. Business at the center was turning favorable rapidly and the idea of naming rights seemed a natural. The conversation ended but no subsequent actions were discussed or planned. Within days, a bill was introduced in the NY State legislature prohibiting any attempt for a name change to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. I am certain no one at the meeting talked about it and clearly the draft of that legislation was prepared long before our meeting took place. So I learned how these matters evolve. I believe wise and experienced convention center managers at 1st tier convention centers know in advance the likely outcome if naming rights are aggressively pursued.  If the center bears the name of a beloved and respected political leader, alive or dead, the effort will be mired in controversy. Potential naming rights sponsors will steer clear of the controversy and convention center leadership will be happy to oblige. If the center only bears the city’s name it is possible that the potential deal value will drive an action plan. Expect pride of place advocates to object to a name change. If that doesn’t discourage the effort, government procurement procedures pose another impediment. Acquiring naming rights is not on any company’s annual marketing budget. Candidates for naming rights have to be courted and persuaded; a process that does not fit into the typical RFP process.  This process needs to be conducted quietly whereas the RFP process is blatantly public and gives cause for a company to decline to bid. Convention centers should also seek out the services of a marketing consultant, one who has closed naming rights deals before and understands the language and nuances of naming rights valuation. In my experience and in all the research I conducted, none of the naming rights deals closed by following a traditional RFP process and most sought the help of a marketing consultant.

Recommendation – An Alternate Idea to Full Facility Naming Rights

There are some excellent examples of convention centers where portions of the centers are offered for naming rights. The David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh sold rights to its 34,000 sq. ft. ballroom to Dollar Bank for $1M and a term of 5 years. The Dollar Bank graciously named the ballroom “The Spirit of Pittsburgh” and installed several displays depicting the history of Pittsburgh throughout the center. At the Colorado Convention Center in Denver naming rights to its 5,000 seat concert theater were sold to Bellco for $1.25M at a term of 5 years. There are discrete and iconic architectural spaces that have naming rights potential in many convention centers; an elegantly designed ballroom, an outside terrace or garden used for special events, an architecturally prominent lobby, a new meeting room suite or technologically advanced boardroom. Convention centers which are very large and subdivided into separate buildings offer unique opportunities for naming rights. Imagine the four principal buildings of McCormick Place (the North, South, West and Lakeside Center) bearing corporate names. The tradition and integrity of the McCormick Place name stays in place and an excellent revenue prospect is exploited. I see similar possibilities at the Orange County Convention Center, the Vancouver Convention and Exhibition Centre and the Moscone Center.



Sales and Marketing – Making Sense of Vertical Markets

The phrase “vertical markets” has a different meaning depending on what segment of the trade show and convention industry you’re talking about. Trade show organizers regard a vertical market from a purely commercial point of view. For them, vertical shows promote a single industry category to a specific clientele. By contrast, a horizontal show has many product categories with broad market appeal. For example, Cebit, the huge technology event staged annually in Hannover, Germany, is a horizontal event. CeBit showcases a wide range of innovations and products from many vendors. The attendee base is from many industries. Compare Cebit with another IT event, the Healthcare Info & Mgmt Systems Society Conference and Exhibition held in Chicago this year. This vertical event is held specifically for the medical healthcare sector and the difference is evident.

For convention center and CVB sales and marketing teams, the meaning of vertical markets is very different. Here the meaning is broad and can refer to any event in a particular industrial sector. The phrase “verticals” is often used in marketing plans and intra-industry conferences among convention center and CVB managers. Quite often you will see staffing responsibilities defined with “vertical” sales and marketing assignments; medical, financial, manufacturing, agricultural, religious, etc.

How are vertical markets selected?

  1. The Case of Professional Associations – For cities pursuing professional association events, the destination appeal, the hotel and meeting room package and the overall cost to association members governs location decisions. Cities and convention centers should know their destination attributes, have a good sense of price point tolerances and overall be able to choose verticals which fit. Large leading convention cities which attract a wide range of association convention and conference business will naturally choose the most reliable and profitable verticals to target. For second and third tier cities the targeting of certain verticals has to be more measured and reflective.
  1. The Case of Trade Associations and Privately Owned Trade Shows – For these events, location choice is governed by the marketplace where buyers and sellers will reliably gather. Choosing which verticals to pursue is based on straight logical business reasons; the industry represents a leading employment base in the region, there is emerging industry growth giving the region leadership status and enumerated by the number of start-up companies, new patents, amounts of venture capital investment, etc. It could also be that the event’s industrial sector fits your city’s traditional brand – San Jose is “Silicon Valley”, Nashville is “Music City “ , Chicago is “Tool Maker, City of Big Shoulders”. These are all good reasons to dedicate sales and marketing resources to certain vertical markets.

We considered all this and believe the selection process for verticals falls short. What is missing is quantitative analysis of actual market behavior over time. Our belief is that the effective use of statistics and thus chances of success (probabilities) complements and improves marketing judgment. Well informed professional judgment can contribute insightful, nuanced interpretations of data and add market intelligence that cannot be enumerated. Over time quantifying things will become a basis for reliable business forecasting and provide a true rationale for pursuing verticals. It also creates a clear vision of market impediments and opportunities.

We took an in-depth look at two verticals; medical/health science and religion. Both are popular verticals; medical/health science due to its growth, reliability and spending behavior and religion because their events normally occur in summer. Our approach was to obtain as much information as possible by reviewing event directories, news articles about the same subject markets and visiting individual event websites. Our method was to select a sample of events (we chose large national events) and obtain a history of event locations. Our hope was to obtain 10 years for each event, our average was 6 years. We fit the events into eight (8) regions which were selected based on geography as well as economic and cultural similarities:

  • Hawaii – On Oahu – Honolulu, and other islands – Maui, Kauai and Hawaii
  • Pacific Northwest – Alaska, In Canada – Vancouver, Washington, Oregon and Idaho
  • California
  • Southwest – Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas
  • Rocky Mountains – Utah, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana
  • Midwest/Plains – North and South Dakota, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio
  • Northeast – In Canada – Toronto and Montreal, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia
  • Southeast – West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Puerto Rico

Our main objective was to record shows with fixed locations and examine and record shows that changed locations each year. For rotating events we picked out predictable patterns as they rotated regions and cities within regions. We also determined probabilities of success for individual cities. The analysis also permitted us to draw conclusions, to explore the fundamental reasons for location decisions and to offer suggestions for convention center and CVB sales teams. We feel we achieved a true and unique understanding of these event markets. The tables below show the results for leading cities:


The statistics above show a more open ability to for cities to compete for these events if a larger sample of rotating national events is used. When only surveying large and presumably more important medical/health science events the findings show the events more likely to choose higher rated cities. Interestingly, Chicago’s percentage climbs to 19.2% if all TSNN Top 250 shows are included (RSNA, ASCO and Chicago Dental among them).


For religious events there is clearly a preference for cities in the Midwest and Southeast. Also notable is that second and third tier cities have relatively high probabilities of booking success.

Convention center and CVB sales teams need to take time to create a statistical description of each vertical shaped and informed by professional judgment as a likely market. Obtain as much history as possible, look for predicable patterns and calculate chances of success. Find out why events choose certain regions, cities and venues over others. Compare one vertical to others and determine which is worth pursuing based on probabilities. The purpose for defining these verticals and obtaining predictable patterns and probabilities is to organize your marketing/sales program to concentrate on the most likely prospects.

Click the link below and learn more about the medical/health and religious event markets by purchasing and downloading our white papers – “In the Pursuit of National Medical/Health Science Events – A Primer Focused on Convention Centers” and “Booking National Religious Events – A Primer for Convention Centers on How Event Location Decisions Are Made”  http://www.conventioncenternow.com/white-papers


Keeping Track of Business – All About Occupancy

For convention centers there is certain elegance in using occupancy as a key performance indicator (KPI). One indicator can reveal all – you’re busy, you’re prosperous and perhaps profitable, your operation provides a steady employment base, and your business draws a lot of out-of town visitors to city hotels, restaurants and entertainment venues – or not. High occupancy draws praise, increases revenue, supports further investment, and permits a level of selectivity when booking events. Low occupancy draws scrutiny, often unfavorable, which questions the wisdom of the investment in the first place, and the reaction from convention center management and advocates is generally uneasy and strained. However, occupancy as a performance indicator is unavoidable. As operators you should focus on it and understand how to react and use it. Occupancy is not complicated. Using the method that hotels use as a model is a simple and legitimate way to follow. The performance indicators used by hotels is based on the “Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry”. These standards are tried and true and accepted by the hotel industry:

For hotels, occupancy is the percentage of available rooms that were sold during a specific time period.

  • Supply (Rooms Available) – the number of rooms in a hotel multiplied by the days in the month
  • Demand (Rooms Sold) – number of rooms sold by a hotel, does not include comp rooms or “no-shows”

Occupancy is calculated by dividing the demand (number of rooms sold) by the supply (number of rooms available).  Therefore – Occupancy = Demand / Supply. Reporting periods for hotels are generally by month and quarter both, with a cumulative average calculated annually. Note that occupancy is not applied to other parts of the hotel such as meeting rooms. The core business of the hotel is to sell sleeping rooms, so the occupancy measure relates to only core performance.

Measuring occupancy should be very similar for convention centers. In this instance because meeting rooms are sometimes viewed differently than exhibit halls, all rentable space (meeting rooms, ballrooms and exhibit halls) should be expressed in square feet.

  • Supply (Space Available) – The amount of square feet available (sum of meeting room, ballroom and exhibit hall square footage) over a given time period
  • Demand (Space Rented/Licensed) – The amount of square feet rented/licensed (sum of meeting room, ballroom and exhibit hall square footage) over the same time period

 Occupancy is calculated by dividing the demand (amount of square        footage rented/licensed) by the supply (amount of square footage available). Therefore – Occupancy = Demand / Supply. As an example, say your convention center rented 150,000 sq. ft. for 17 days in September. Your center has 300,000 sq. ft. available to rent each day, then:

Occupancy (September) = (150,000 sq. ft. x 17 days)/ (300,000 sq. ft. x 30 days)

Occupancy = 2,550,000/9,000,000 = 28.4%

Curiously, in my time as a consultant I have run across more than one convention center using a different method which is absurd and just plain wrong. In those cases any occupancy, no matter how small, is regarded as 100% for the time period. Now that’s more than a fisherman’s lie, a great deal more.

Occupancy Nuances

Occupancy is always questioned when serious capital investments, like center expansion, are considered. If board members don’t question it, bankers surely will. There are always distinctions, implications, and complexities when measuring something so important. Know what they are and be prepared to explain things rationally. It’s best to have other performance indicators as support.

  • Event Move – In and Move – Out Days – Regard these days as occupied days. Here is where you could say that one center’s occupancy figure for an event does not equal another’s. If your occupancy level is traditionally low, you will often permit many more move-in and out days than a center with high occupancy. You may even comp or discount the rent for those extra days. Contrast this to a very busy center where aggressive date/time management means attaining a few more events. Hence, the number of move – in and move – out days is actively negotiated. The difference between the two convention centers may be inconsequential but it is a worthwhile distinction to understand.
  • What About a History of Low Nets? Doesn’t that De-value the Value of Using Occupancy as a Key Performance Indicator? – Yes it could. In my time at the Javits Center we always measured show net to gross square footage (expressed as per cent) for exhibit halls. Our purpose was to monitor net square footage performance. A low net to gross ratio was often cause for a discussion with show managers whose event may be declining. The Javits Center had many recurring events and still does. If we saw an event consistently fall below a certain net/gross percentage, after a time we’d move the event to less desirable space in favor of a show that was growing or a new show. Our advice is to measure net/gross % in parallel with occupancy.
  • What About the Quality of the Events? Where Does Occupancy Fit In? – Occupancy is agnostic to the quality of events. Agreed, there are some low quality events, like electronic wholesalers or flea market type consumer events. Let the quality issues come out in the other performance indicators such as service revenue per net square foot or the number of hotel room nights generated.
  • What About Events that Are Licensed Outside of Rentable Space? – The example set by the hotel industry applies. They only measure sleeping rooms in their equation. Sleeping room sales is their core business and a simple and pure occupancy figure avoids distortion and equivocating. Rental of meeting rooms or ballrooms is not in a hotel’s occupancy rate. But consider that most other hotel income, meeting room rental, F&B, parking etc., derive from sleeping room sales. Some convention centers conduct business outside normal rentable space (meeting room, ballrooms and exhibit halls). The LA Convention Center and the Javits Center enjoy revenues from film and photo shoots. The price basis for this business is normally a location fee, unless they are using meeting rooms or an exhibit hall. That’s not the usual way film and photo shoots operate however. They favor public spaces and tend to be free ranging, making on-site changes and often using a variety of corridors, outside space, even the roof. It’s tempting to include all the free ranging space used and include it in occupancy calculations. Our advice is stay pure, keep this square footage used out of occupancy calculations unless they operate in a fixed rentable space.

Parsing Occupancy

Now that you understand occupancy, use it as a statistical foundation for other key performance indicators:

  • Compare occupancy by exhibit hall by month – Use it as a basis for setting rental prices. Demand pricing is used in many other business sectors, most commonly airline travel and hotels. You can simulate past years occupancy to see how revenues can change with a demand pricing model. The objective of course is to increase rental revenue and create price incentives for events to consider off months and less popular halls. To our knowledge no convention centers use demand pricing as a consistent formal pricing method.
  • Calculate monthly and annual revenue and expense per Occupied Day – Use this as a basis for forecasting based on predicted occupancy.
  • Calculate monthly and annual energy use and cost per Occupied Day – Use this as a basis for forecasting energy costs, one of your largest line expenses. Graph same and you may be surprised what you find. Our good guess is the result will be non – linear.

Seventy Percent (70%) – Why is it Maximum Practical Occupancy?

More than 20 years ago the firm PWC proclaimed 70% to be the maximum practical occupancy for convention centers. Their logic was that convention and trade shows have definite dates and days of the week in mind and typically don’t compromise. Naturally there are gaps of several days or more between these events. Add holiday times of year such as Christmas when any trade show or convention is rare. Now the event day possibilities lessen, making 70% ring true. Having experienced over 70% occupancy, there are other factors to support PWC’s theory:

  • Building and plant maintenance becomes quite difficult. Deferred maintenance lists grow rapidly. Odds increase for a utility infrastructure failure – power outages, air conditioning failures
  • Labor and staff end up working long hours. Sometimes inexperienced part time workers have to be hired, leading to service complaints. Vacations and time off become difficult to schedule
  • General Decorating contractors, already working with thin profit margins, see profits shrink as they may have to fly in extra management and supervision from other cities. Labor over-time prices are unavoidable, except in cities with “1st eight straight” work rules.


Facility ManagementEnergy Management – Choosing a Replacement Lighting for High Bay Fixtures in Exhibit Halls – LED vs Induction Lighting

For high bay lighting applications in exhibit halls, most of you have already made the transition from mercury vapor to metal halide. Now many of you are no doubt thinking about the next transition. Lighting technology is improving at a very rapid pace and each technology transition provides material improvements in lighting efficiency (lumens/watt), lumen depreciation, lamp life, energy costs and maintenance costs. Two lighting technologies have demonstrated clear advantages over metal halide; induction lighting (IL) and light emitting diode lighting (LED).

IL lamps are a specialized type of fluorescent lamps that do not have direct electrical pin contacts but rather use an electromagnetic coil which provides a more gentle start making the lamp life much longer. Their commercial application is growing steadily and they are frequently used for street, parking lot and site lighting. IL’s long bulb life (100,000 hours) make them an excellent candidate for high bay lighting applications.

Until this past year operators of commercial buildings with ceiling height more than 20 feet had limited choices for the next generation of energy efficient lighting. LED technology could not measure up to customer expectations for providing uniform light at floor level for high bay fixtures. However, rapid improvements in luminaire design (especially in regard to brightness and glare) and lighting efficiency make LED a competitive choice. Also, the differentiator of pricing between the two technologies is slowly disappearing. Falling prices and rising lighting efficiency is beginning to generate savings that offer payback periods of 2-3 years for LED comparable to IL.

There are many quick and simple comparison charts and tables available on the internet listing the pros and cons of LED and IL. It’s important to understand that these references often promote a point of view where one technology is favored over the other. The negative references tend to focus on the case studies of low quality products which often populate markets when new technologies are rolled out- this is the case with LED.

Operating Factors – Comparison

The comparisons below between IL and LED represent a composite of actual installation experience as a facility consultant for St. Johns University in New York City, an extensive literature review and, interviews with lighting engineers and the Association for Energy Engineers:

  • Lighting Efficacy (lumens per watt – l/w)
    • LED – 85 -95 l/w; New generation LED bulbs are reported to have efficacy values of 110- 120l/w. Philips Lighting has reported development new LED bulbs with efficacy values exceeding 200 l/w.
    • IL – 70 – 85 l/w
  • Color Rendition Index (CRI) – Convention centers should consider themselves as a retail environment. CRI values less than 80 are not acceptable. Ask distributors about bulbs with CRI values greater than 80.
    • LED – 80
    • IL – 80
  • Correlated Color Temperature (CCT –in degrees Kelvin) – The higher the CCT the more clean or bluish the light quality. A lower CCT (<3000) will produce a warmer light quality.
    • LED – 2,700K – 6,500 K
    • IL – 2,500K – 6,500K
  • Lamp/Bulb Life (in operating hours)
    • LED – 50,000 to 55,000 hours
    • IL – 100,000 hours
  • Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD – % lumen loss over time)
    • LED – LEDs will see a gradual decrease very similar to IL in lumens to 50,000 hours then LLD will drop steeply. This performance is dependent on the ability of the fixture to dissipate heat. LLD will be greatly accelerated if this cannot be controlled.
    • IL – IL bulbs lumens decline about 10% in the first 10,000 hours then remain fairly constant until about 70,000 hours when LLD begins to drop steeply
  • Light Dispersion Characteristics
    • LED – LED has more flexibility with light-distribution patterns. With LEDs and their secondary optics, you have the ability to get the light where you need it.
    • IL – Induction luminaires must be used with a reflector in order to make use of the total light output.
  • Glare Characteristics
    • LED – Can be a serious problem. Poor fixture design and elevation placement can cause very distracting glare with LEDs. LEDs light comes from tiny sources that create very high brightness from a very small area — very high nits or candelas. The key to success is optics. This is no small matter to convention center management and you have to get it right.
    • IL – Not a problem with properly designed luminaires
  • Reliability (Failure Rates)
    • LED – There are reports of unsatisfactory reliability from poorly manufactured fixtures and bulbs. Convention center managers are wise to rely on a high quality LED manufacturers (GE, Philips, Lumileds, Cree, Nichia, OSRAM) to ensure reliability
    • IL – A more mature technology with a good reliability record
  • Ambient Temperature Sensitivity
    • LED – Very sensitive to sustained high temperatures (>25 degrees C or 77 degrees F). Many high-bay LED fixtures feature a horizontal top surface that’s susceptible to dirt accumulation. This reduces the fixture’s ability to keep the lamps cool. It will also reduce lamp life and increase LLD. Fixtures with vertical fins are less prone to clogging from dirt. For exhibit halls in most of the US, there is a definite stratification of temperatures in exhibit halls especially during event move in and move out. Temperatures at elevations above 25’ can easily exceed 90 degrees F. If LED is elected, be sure to compare a fixture’s rated temperature to the expected ambient conditions. Otherwise, you may have to consider de-stratification fans (paddle fans won’t do). If choosing LED obtain the lamp/ with the best temperature performance.
    • IL – Much better performance at high ambient temperatures (50 – 100 degrees C or 122 to>200 degrees F) with little to no effect on lumen output or lamp life
  • Fixture Appearance
    • LED – Some of the heat sink designs make the fixture look very unconventional. Also a flat topped fixture is likely to accumulate dirt.
    • IL – Very conventional looking fixtures.
  • Warranties
    • LED – Presently up to 5 years
    • IL – 5 to 10 years
  • Disposal of Hazardous Waste
    • LED – There may some exotic elements in the circuitry. Ask the manufacturers and pay attention to environmental protection regulations
    • IL – IL contains a small amount of mercury. The disposal of mercury is regulated and requires special procedures


We are clearly in favor of LEDs over IL. The pace of improvements in all operating factors is very rapid and we believe the IL advantages, such as lamp life, will slowly disappear. We advise that if elected, you choose on the basis of quality considering all factors, not simply energy savings. This means relying on brands that have a history and indeed legacy of manufacturing quality lighting products. Other factors to consider in this decision are listed below:

  1. Certainly no convention center manager wants to be faced with a highly visible failure of LED fixtures. For LEDs, there is still uncertainty regarding consistent quality as industry wide and governmental standardization and regulation continue to evolve.

The DOE Energy Star program is one where you can find standards which should give some safety and direction to a decision to installed high bay fixtures:

Look for the ENERGY STAR label. ENERGY STAR means high quality and performance, particularly in the following areas:

  • Color Quality
    • 6 different requirements for color to ensure quality up front and over time
  • Light Output
    • Light output minimums to ensure you get enough light
    • Light distribution requirements to ensure the light goes where you need it
    • Guidelines for equivalency claims to take the guess-work out of replacement
  • Peace of mind
    • Verified compliance with more than 20 separate industry standards and procedures
    • Long term testing to back up lifetime claims
    • Testing to stress the products in operating environments similar to how you will use the product in your home
    • 3 year minimum warranty requirement

All ENERGY STAR products are subject to random testing each year to ensure they meet the ENERGY STAR requirements.

  1. Consider the fact that most of the retail world is converting to LED. The exhibit floor during a trade show is very much like the retail environment.
  2. Philips Lighting has entirely abandoned Induction lighting and is actively promoting LEDs over all other lighting technologies (at which they are the global leaders).
  3. Convention center finance managers have grown used to very favorable ROIs and paybacks for lighting improvement projects, usually less than 3 years. In this instance, where the higher cost may push the payback higher, we recommend a life cycle costing evaluation. If capital is a problem, there are many rebate programs available related to demand reduction as well as straight energy conservation through your electric utility and/or state government.

Before you launch a lighting replacement program with LED in mind, we recommend that you engage a lighting engineering group, one that has many retail clients. In lieu of hiring a lighting engineer, choose a lighting distributor that has no strong business ties to either IL or LED manufacturers. In fact a record of installations using both technologies should be a prerequisite. Narrow your choices but first do a test in one or more areas of your exhibit halls, take measurements and seek reaction from some of your clients.