Profit is a fungible term for convention centers. Sometimes it is expressed properly as you may see it in a public corporation’s annual report. Sometimes it is expressed where revenues include unearned income (such as a government contribution, normally a hotel tax). To avoid confusion this article uses EBITDA (acknowledging that convention centers pay no T – tax). EBITDA is described as a way to evaluate a company’s performance without having to factor in financing and accounting decisions or tax environments. Non- cash expenses of depreciation and amortization are left out. Also, unearned revenue like hotel tax subsidies and interest earned on surplus subsidies and/or expensed for debt service are left out. EBITDA as an earnings measure is particularly useful for organizations like convention centers that have large amounts of fixed assets which are normally subject to heavy depreciation charges. What you are left with is a performance statistic showing whether earned revenues can cover and exceed operating expenses and if not, what amount and percentage (in total revenues) of subsidy is necessary.
How Do Most US Convention Centers View Success
The primary measure of success is to attribute convention and tradeshow annual attendance to a healthy hospitality industry where hotel occupancy is high, and out of town dollars spent at hotels, restaurants, entertainment, shopping venues, rental car outlets, etc., all flow on a regular basis. These facts are reported as “economic impact” – a result of event attendee and event organizer spending. Attendee spending refers to additional expenditure within a city from event‐related visitors such as exhibitors and attendees. For events, attendee spending forms the major component of economic impact. Collectively, attendee and organizer spending in the host city are directly attributable to event production and is termed direct economic impact. All cities however, report indirect and induced spending and add this estimate to direct economic impact. Indirect impact or effects are the changes in sales, income or jobs in sectors within the region that supply goods and services to the hospitality sector. For example, increased sales in transportation to and from airports or linen service companies serving hotels and restaurants resulting from increased business volume is an indirect effect of convention and tradeshow attendee spending. Induced impact or effects are the increased sales within the region from household spending of income earned due to conventions and tradeshows and their supporting sectors. Convention center workers, hotel and restaurant employees spend the income they earn because of conventions and tradeshows on housing, utilities, groceries, clothing and other discretionary spending. Multipliers are applied to capture the size of the indirect and induced effects, expressed as a ratio of total effects to direct effects. Total effects are direct effects plus the secondary (indirect plus induced) effects. A sales multiplier of 2.0, for example, means that for every dollar received directly from a convention or tradeshow attendee, another dollar in sales is created within the region through indirect or induced effects.
To make the economic impacts easier to track, cities have determined through independent research the average spend per event visitor. You will see economic impact explained in various press releases as an annual event attendance figure multiplied by the average attendee spending. As an example, San Diego Convention Center’s marketing literature shows an annual event attendance of 824,376 with average spending of $1,179. The Impact calculation is close to $1billion.
Should Economic Impact Be the Only Measure of Success?
Achieving favorable and growing economic impact is the primary convention center goal. Those of us in the business appreciate and can parse the sometimes overwhelming impact that’s reported. Many of us know that the impact estimates are heightened and often overplayed. We all know that:
- There are show managers (typically tradeshows and consumer shows) who exaggerate attendance
- There are show managers (typically tradeshows and consumer shows) that present inaccuracies regarding the percent of total attendance from out of town.
- Event attendee spending does not apply to the city or metropolitan region as final demand and there are doubts that the proper calculations actually occur. The basic problem is with retail purchases of goods that are produced outside of the region. Only the retail margin and maybe some portion of wholesale and transportation margins should apply as final demand for the region.
For the most part taxpayers understand direct economic impact. Indirect and induced economic impact is not so easy to follow. If the impacts are substantial the evidence unfolds before them as market forces drive private investment in new hotels, upscale restaurants, and entertainment and shopping districts, all in proximity to the convention center. Adding indirect and induced economic impact without a truly convincing explanation can sometimes be a tough sell. So in answering our own question, “Should Economic Impact Be the Only Measure of Success?” yes, something more is needed. For a convention center, having a goal of improving cash flow, watching as your efforts bear fruit, and eventually achieving positive cash flow measured as EBITDA is as satisfying to convention center leadership, staff, board members, and political supporters as a large economic impact is. Favorable cash flow statements have these attributes:
- A solid ring of truth about them; they demonstrate management competence.
- They resonate well with most segments of the population who may be naturally skeptical of unusually large economic impact statistics.
- They add a legitimacy, believability and clarity to economic impact reporting. Ultimately clarity matters. Clarity leads to public support and unity of effort.
If successive years of positive cash flow are achieved, covering all cash related expenses and accumulating a capital reserve, that fact will provide a reputation lift to the convention center and city and will be regularly reported and indeed celebrated with pride.
Findings –Are Convention Centers Able to Cover Operating Expenses with Earned Revenues?
Some are, and more than you’d think. Some are closer than you’d think. All should at least try.
The research conducted is illustrative. For convention center sample we were able to find and review audited financial reports for the most recent business year (either 2014 or 2015). The sample size was smaller than desired however; many of the financial reports that exist are bundled with other public facilities like theaters, arenas and stadiums. Phone calls to convention centers were not effective; most did not have the information readily available and often ended with suggestions that we file a FOIA request. To conduct a full blown study with a larger sample size and a review of multiple years would be daunting; beyond the process delays of FOIA requests there would probably be many questions as each center has different accounting methods for classifying revenues and expenses. For example, some centers count deferred revenues (rent received for an event which hasn’t yet occurred) as operating revenues while others count it as unearned income. A detailed study would also do a more complete job of explaining why some convention centers do better than others financially as the study reviews and compares occupancy rates, service offerings and their pricing models, and overall expenses.
In general the findings were surprising. Our expectation is that we would only find one or two convention centers in the sample where earned revenues covered or exceeded operating expenses less depreciation. We found six (37.5% of total). We also found convention centers where in our judgment achieving the goal of covering expenses (“operating profitably”) seemed reachable. Given the limits of sample size, the tables below summarize findings. The tables also attempt to benchmark (using averages and medians) the occurrence of “being profitable” in calculating the following; earned revenues, operating expenses (less depreciation) and net – all per gross square foot of exhibit space; dependence on government support (normally from tourist taxes) expressed as an amount and per cent and; documenting which service offerings the convention centers provide.
Sample Convention Center Operating Cash Flows – 2014 or 2015
NOTES: * WSCC carries all or part of the city’s convention marketing expense of $10.4M. This expense is normally carried by the CVB elsewhere. Without this expense WSCC’s cash flow improves substantially. WSCC’s F&B is self op.
** DC Convention Center’s revenue and expenses were derived from DC Auditor’s report 2015.
*** The Javits Center could well be considered an outlier in this comparison. Center has a high client demand, books all its own business, rarely gives rent concessions and has a full range of high value services including labor provider to General and Exhibit Appt’d contractors
Sample of Convention Center Major Service Offerings
- If the Javits Center is taken out of the analysis as an outlier, then four of the five convention centers that covered expenses with earned revenue had both earned revenue per square foot of exhibit space above average and expense per square foot of exhibit space below average.
- If the Javits Center is taken out of the analysis as an outlier, then four of the five convention centers offered the high value services of F&B, Utilities (elec. and plumbing), Telcomm/Internet, and Parking
- Of all the convention centers that covered expenses with earned revenue, four of the six had a known occupancy rate above 65%. There is a strong inference that convention centers with a favorable occupancy rate (over 60%) which offer a full range of high value services (especially utilities) have a much greater probability of covering operating expenses.
Conclusions and Recommendations
- First let me commit a bit of heresy and say that I disagree with the oft repeated phrase “convention centers are not designed to make a profit”. I consider it one of the more ill advised management declarations in the convention center business. My view as a former GM is that talk like that will discourage creativity and any entrepreneurial spirit your staff may have.
- The research and findings for this piece are encouraging. There are good examples of cash flow improvement and coverage of operating expenses with earned revenue. One of the better examples is the work of a private convention center management company, AEG Facilities. They’ve taken the step of thinking and acting strategically in announcing that covering expenses with earned revenue as a primary goal for their clients. They made it policy and they met that goal at the Los Angeles Convention Center for successive years. They have been able to increase occupancy from 55% when they assumed management in Dec. 2013 to 72% currently, a notable turn around. It has been recently reported that for FY 2016 that Los Angeles Convention Center achieved an $8.1M operational surplus. Additionally, similar progress has been made at the Hawaii Convention Center which AEG Facilities also manages. The Los Angeles Convention Center has retained the profits and funded the center’s own capital reserve. It is often surprising how rapidly the fund accumulates cash. At some point a convention center can reach a level of self sufficiency where technical improvements can keep pace with the market and deferred maintenance doesn’t grow out of control. AEG Facilities accomplished this with cost cutting (principally payroll), renegotiating terms, commissions and price schedules for contract services, and aggressively filling open dates with film and photo shoots and consumer shows.
- AEG Facilities’ effort will probably represent a change in the way private management companies compete. Normally private management proposals are strong on cost cutting measures which they can all do consistently well. Rarely is there a stated and clear objective of covering operating expenses with earned revenues in privatization proposals.
- We reviewed many service order forms and found some meaningful price differences among convention centers in the same region serving the same market sectors. Recommend that a pricing audit be conducted and see how you compare to current market prices. Perhaps you have more pricing power than expected.
- In several of the audited financial statements there appeared a line item entitled “rent credit”. We learned that this was a way of accounting for rent discounts and rent free events. Rent credits are classified in financial statements as unearned revenue and are, from what we have learned, non-cash revenues, i. e., convention centers do not actually receive a partial or full reimbursement. Some of the credits were substantial. For example, the Los Angeles Convention Center posted 2016 rent credits of $6M. Rent credits occur mostly with association meetings and exhibits. These terms are negotiated by CVBs. This happens whenever there is a ”citywide” event measured by the number of anticipated hotel rooms needed. The usual offer to clients is zero rent. Zero rent became common in the early 2000’s. The dot com bubble had burst, more exhibit space was coming on line and cities were concerned about losing market share. Then 9/11 hit and the recession followed in 2008. Now, zero rent is a common negotiating tactic, especially for professional associations. I believe convention centers are making it too easy for CVBs to offer zero rent on proposals for these reasons:
• It is wrong that one organization crafts transactions that are not particularly
beneficial to the organization that is ultimately accountable.
• Generally competing on price alone diminishes the perception of your city’s
brand and creates an impression that event locations are like commodities;
one is as good as the other. Indeed cities and convention centers are not.
Reasonable price competition can work, but once you start leading with
price, especially zero rent, the expectation is that you will do it all the time.
Challenge CVBs to offer better justification for zero rent. Force them to obtain more corporate intelligence about the client’s real intentions; is coming to your city a real market advantage to the client zero rent or not, for associations – is your city part of a predictable rotation increasing the probability of a booking, are there less costly value added parts of a proposal that all together are as attractive as zero rent. Additionally engage in conversations with the general decorating contractors, hoteliers, board or advisory association members from your city and key exhibitors from your city. This takes hard work and finesse but clear information about location decisions are sometimes revealed.
For convention centers interested in improving cash flow, consider the audit services that MTMConsult, LLC can provide. The audits can be scaled to fit your situation and are reasonably priced. Our team of experienced practitioners with real field experience will drill down to the important details and provide actionable results.
Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org or call – 203-273-6999
An Historical Perspective
The vivid history of struggle for labor unions in Northeastern and Midwest cities left a legacy of distrust and resentment but also a feeling of empowerment as wages, benefits and living standards all improved for union members. Strong union leadership came to influence and intimidate political leaders. Reactions to threats such as non-union participation in large construction projects or service workers in urban cores were loud, confrontational and mostly, successfully opposed. As union membership declined nationally their membership held. Aggressive negotiating tactics and the threat of strikes were modus operandi. These strategies survived later generations of union leadership up to and including the building boom in urban convention centers in the 1980s and 90s.
So it is no coincidence that convention centers could be said to be genetically tied to unions. In the years of new and expanded convention centers, finding financial resources needed to build new was a formidable task. Political leaders therefore:
- Dealt with the financial issues by garnering vocal political support and labor unions could always be counted on.
- Understood that the quid pro quo for union support has been continued employment relating to convention center operations – so many convention centers are born with union labor at their side.
- Created an environment where convention center management often carried the recognition that unions have political clout, enough to make managers unlikely to push hard for change. Without support, the unreasonable demands and bad habits that unions carried were rarely challenged. Tradeshow contractors through a local trade association negotiated Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) and administered the same to most of the convention center work forces. Their attitude was similar to the convention center management’s – they felt that the unions occupy a stature not easily contested.
We know now that these agreements and how they are managed day to day are a key element to a convention center’s business reputation. If things go badly the convention center and the city suffers damaging publicity, rarely are the trade show contractor’s associations held accountable. For some cities things did go badly:
- Detroit’s convention business, already a hard sell in the 1980’s, turned into the lowest occupancy of any major city, largely due to union excess.
- During the same period in New York City, the leadership position as the city with the biggest and the best shows quickly changed. New York’s problems took on notoriety as organized crime infiltrated the unions. The Javits Center became the worst example of union labor problems – mobbed up, featherbedding to excess, with organized theft on the exhibit floor and loading docks, payroll and insurance fraud and worse.
- Chicago’s McCormick Place and the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia were not far behind.
Union leadership had become the de facto managers of convention centers.
How did this happen? Too often management forfeited control of hiring decisions, production schedules, work rules and nearly everything else that governs an orderly productive work force. It came to be that event managers insisted that union shop stewards participate in event planning meetings – they knew where the power to set up an event efficiently and peaceably resided. What occurred was a sorry history of appeasement and indulgence to union demands. There was a purposeful and persistent avoidance of confrontation. In sum, there was no will to make things right.
Meanwhile in the convention center boom of 1980s and 90s, centers opened or expanded in “right to work” states of the South where there was lower labor costs and an absence of strong union culture. Quite rapidly the business advantages of southern and western cities became clear and convention centers in the Northeast and Midwest began to lose market share. West coast convention centers which were union buildings, such as the Las Vegas Convention Center, the Sands Convention Center, Moscone Center in San Francisco and the San Diego Convention Center thrived also. One big differentiator was and is that customer service was simply better in the South and West. It was apparent that the hard-edged “us vs. them” union culture wasn’t present – they were and are friendly, polite, reasonable, helpful, with no shop stewards enforcing “rules”. Managers from the large freight and decorating companies have spoken openly about how cooperative labor is in Anaheim, San Jose, San Francisco, San Diego, Phoenix and Las Vegas. Company managers could concentrate more on show production and service. In these cities the union wage and benefits paid were comparable to Chicago and the East coast and the decorating/freight moving contractor’s business model was the same. By most measures New York and Chicago had similar competitive appeal, yet Chicago and New York still lost market share for the best shows.
Customer service and prevailing business expectations of service were something that unions were loath to understand and accept. Innovative and emerging businesses like information technology or the health sciences were generally non-union companies. They were conscious of the marketing investment required to participate in a tradeshow, convention or conference. Their focus was and is all business, and they were put off when confronted with service that was indifferent, expensive, and often corrupt. Why tolerate this when there were alternatives? It didn’t take long for show managers to move their events to other places. They abandoned traditional market locations in part to save their exhibitors from union labor. But change was in the wind and New York’s Javits Center was first.
The Tipping Point
In the Spring of 1995 we were fortunate to be part of a team that planned and executed taking over all labor contracts at the Javits Center. Some were held by the NY Exhibition Contractor’s Association. Labor reform was only part of steps taken to turn around Javits Center’s declining business but it was by far the action that sticks in everybody’s memory. It was clear to most that the business decline and sordid reputation had reached a point where the hospitality businesses in the city were primed and ready for something radical to occur.
In the beginning of 1995 press reports about Javits Center mismanagement and presence of organized crime in the work force were common. The points below describe the environment we had going in:
- We had strong political support. NY State’s new governor at the time, George Pataki, knew of and fully supported our plan
- Two of the unions were being investigated for corruption and under some type of federal or court mandated supervision.
- Before contract negotiations began the unions accepted three important conditions; overlapping work jurisdictions were over, there were to be two principal work forces- one for exhibit building and the other for freight moving, and; the Javits Center could hire from any source.
The Javits labor reform plan was executed swiftly. Once launched, in one week’s time there was an entire new work force with the following:
- No overlapping work jurisdictions or composite crews
- Hiring requirements administered by the Javits Center covering personal appearance, customer service attitudes and skill
- New work rules, service, integrity and productivity standards
- 24 hr, straight time labor, M thru F
- Apprentices added to the carpentry work force without prescribed ratios to journeymen
- Broad management rights; management would decide on crew sizes, multiple shifts and flexible start times for carpenters, who would work overtime, etc.
Within one year center occupancy improved from 35-40% to 60-65%.
How to Negotiate a CBA that Fits the Convention Center Business Model
The narrative below focuses on the Javits Center CBAs developed in the mid 1990s as the best example of agreements that were designed specifically to fit the event business. There are no construction work rules, required union referral for labor, special work jurisdictions, supervision and apprentice ratios or double time wages. It covers all the major sections that should be added or amended from existing CBAs in order to achieve meaningful structural change. The Javits Center agreements and business aftermath did not forfeit any work to others, retained the general administrative management functions for exhibit building (Carpenters) and freight moving (Teamsters) work forces and charged an hourly fee to contractors for hiring them. In their labor reform McCormick Place forfeited electrical services and permitted exhibitors to do a major fraction of exhibit building – perhaps good for show managers and exhibitors but a major loss of revenue for McCormick Place and trade show contractors. In the Pennsylvania Convention Center’s labor reform, the problems of overlapping jurisdictions and a generally unmanageable carpentry work force were solved to a point. However, there still remains a pending appeal by the carpenter’s union via the state’s public labor regulators.
The Javits Center CBAs are different in that all the CBAs are held by the center. For contract labor (the work that General Decorating contractors and EACs do), contractors hire from the Javits Center. The center manages the contract, does all the payroll and administrative functions, hires and fires, conducts training, provides uniforms, etc. In most other convention centers the trade show contractors association normally hold the carpentry and freight moving contracts while the convention center holds the utility services contracts. The advice and counsel given below can be applied to both circumstances.
Preparing for Negotiations
If you’ve experienced union labor problems at convention centers there is a familiar pattern of conditions that evolves. Firstly the CBA is generally modeled after city-wide construction agreements and gives unions too much control:
- Labor assignments are by union referral only
- There are jurisdictions within jurisdictions for specialized work all requiring one or more levels of supervision.
- There are ratio limits for the use of apprentices who are often unavailable.
- The wage and benefit packages are expensive with benefit loads exceeding 50% of wages.
More harmful to management however are the subtle and insidious ways the union can expand and exercise power and control:
- Friends and family of union leadership will begin to occupy supervisory and shop steward positions
- Union stewards will slowly move into making a few then many management decisions over the work force
- Customer service standards will become secondary; complaints will bubble up; bad publicity will follow and market share will erode.
Our experience is that the local service contractor’s association views organizing for the hard task of a contract dispute or prolonged negotiations too big a business risk. For a convention center, you have reached the tipping point –something structural and meaningful has to happen. If a labor take-over by a convention center is being considered, it will require strong political and business support and a management team that can plan and execute well.
In most circumstances, unless the union side is business-savvy and enlightened, there is likely to be no material or radical change on either side of the table. That is normally the case until there is a compelling reason to change and a resolute desire to change things by the convention center. Publicized scandal, corruption, and a severely declining business environment are compelling reasons. A well prepared management negotiating team will recognize and exploit these situations. Most of the public believe that negotiations are a series of proposals and counter proposals about wages and benefits, but there are issues equally important to obtaining a favorable CBA. These issues revolve around trade jurisdictions, management rights, and literally all the routine things that control the conduct of work and productivity of the work force. For every fraction of increase agreed to on wages and benefits there should be a comparable fraction taken in order to achieve a more effective level of management control and a diminishment of onerous, non-productive and often silly work rules.
There should be a standard check list to prepare for these negotiations. First and foremost however, you need to have a clear buy – in from the center’s Board of Directors and the politicians that appointed them. Unless the unions are large and sophisticated represented by legal counsel, you can generally rely on them being unprepared. Know the personalities. Mostly unions will send a local business agent to negotiations. That individual will come with one or two key employees, one the shop steward. You should be thoroughly prepared with:
- Lost business/declining business statistics
- Customer complaints
- Samples of bad publicity mentioned in the press
- Employee statistics; productivity, absenteeism, sick time statistics, workman’s compensation claims, etc.
- Business facts regarding your competitors
- Union work rules at competitive convention centers
- Insist that the unions provide copies of all their CBAs with other employers for maintenance and construction.
Union business agents will normally begin with a series of unreasonable demands and petty complaints. Expect some sermonizing on their part. So be patient, let the drama pass and wait to ask when they will be ready to seriously negotiate. Hold off on submitting company demands as long as you can – let all the unacceptable and unreasonable arguments play out. Stick to your plan and don’t get emotional.
Important CBA Sections
Contract Objective – This section is sometimes ignored as high minded language which no one is likely to use as a basis for dispute. It should contain the usual perfunctory phrases regarding prevention of strikes and lock outs and peaceable settlement of grievances. The language of this section is key however because it sets the foundation of trade union responsibilities and can come up as a management basis for a contract dispute or as a reasonable defense in an arbitration proceeding. The Contract Objective section is the essence of the contract – the union provides enough qualified labor and the employer provides work and pays them fairly. This is no small matter.
Trade Jurisdiction – This is a difficult section and has to artfully written. It’s worthwhile to compose this section as elegantly as possible where a few words and phrases spell out the jurisdictions with clarity. If necessary, difficult ambiguities should be covered in a separate “exceptions” paragraph.
Another item normally covered by the Trade Jurisdiction section is the identification of classifications within a trade (journeyman, apprentice, etc.). Be sparse in any language and phrases, for example, identifying supervision (foreman, leadman, etc.). Quite often by listing all the supervisory classifications, working groups end up with unnecessary and multiple levels of supervision.
Union Recognition – This section normally gives recognition to the union as the exclusive bargaining entity for employees. It’s also a section which can be used to control the activities of union representatives and business agents on your site. It can regulate pre-notification of a site visit, proper credentialing, access, time spent with members, and general conduct on site. Union representatives should not have carte blanche access to your property.
Management Rights – The CBA should in all respects balance employee interests (wages, benefits, overtime, safe working conditions) with employer interests which really involve retention of critical decision making options. On the employer side this is generally achieved by a Management Rights clause. As with the Trade Jurisdiction section, it’s worthwhile to compose this section as elegantly as possible where the words and phrases spell out management rights with clarity.
While we favor the above approach, some legal experts contend that a short list of fundamental rights coupled with all encompassing language is simply not sufficient. Employers want to rely on residual rights. This means that all rights to operate the business are retained except those relinquished by other provisions in the CBA. Legal experts however point to a history and bias of Public Employment Commissions or Authorities where they clearly favor the process of collective bargaining when items such as management rights are vaguely expressed.
Extraordinary Sections to the Management Rights Clause – There are exceptions which require separate mention and emphasis from work rules. At the Javits Center it was accepting gratuities and drug and alcohol testing.
Accepting gratuities has long been cause of much of the industry’s bad reputation. Indeed, convention centers in Detroit, New York, Chicago and Philadelphia have suffered dismal business reputations because this got out of control. Acceptance of a gratuity became a demand in some instances. All cities have largely curbed this abuse but the legacy of bad news is difficult to change. There must be a provision prohibiting acceptance of gratuities and a “no tolerance” standard set, i. e., immediate dismissal. Some cities such as Philadelphia’s separate Customer Satisfaction Agreement or Chicago’s Exhibitor’s Bill of Rights could be considered worthy of separate CBA sections. Drug and Alcohol Testing needs a separate section because it requires a true examination by legal counsel. There are health and personal privacy issues to consider too. Normally authorized testing is permitted on hiring, on a post accident investigation, or when there is strong management suspicion of abuse. Random testing can only normally be done for security workers or fork lift drivers.
Hiring – An ideal “Hiring” section should include the following:
- A provision giving the Employer the right to hire from any available source. This will be aggressively contested but is necessary. Most of the union problems are rooted in a clique of union members who have a strong loyalty to the union and will cooperate with things like customer service initiatives only in the most superficial way. The employer should not be limited by bad choices. Establishment of a probationary period for new employees for a time (1 year is best) after hiring. These probationary employees can be discharged at any time and the discharge not subject to grievance procedures.
- Include a provision which permits a reduction in force. Probationary employees will be first and all others by work performance. If employees are regarded as equal performers, then date of hire will govern.
- The reduction in force provision is often regarded as the “seniority clause”. Certain unions, particularly the Teamsters (IBT), will attach a system for work calls based on date of hire language in this provision. Once established, productivity normally declines and rank and file workers regard themselves as protected. It’s normally not possible to negotiate this out of a CBA with IBT. Interpretations of seniority are the most frequent cause of IBT grievances. At this point a whole new series of work rules have to be established in order for the Employer to properly control the abuses which accompany work call seniority.
Joint Employer – This section is necessary if the CBA is held by the convention center. It permits others; decorating and drayage contractors, exhibiting companies, and EACs to supervise your employees. To avoid a challenge to the Joint Employer clause, there are some employer obligations that have to be fulfilled. There are some well established and uncomplicated legal tests regarding the a convention center’s level of participation in actually managing and administering the workforce which should clear up and legitimize a convention center holding the CBAs.
Hours, Holidays and Overtime Pay – This section contains the most meaningful terms and greatly affects a convention center’s ability to increase business volume and maximize occupancy. Prolonged event move ins and move outs result in lost opportunity. Event managers will do whatever they can to help their exhibitors avoid overtime and double time. They will even threaten to hold the event elsewhere when the move in and out schedule cannot accommodate their demand for “straight time” move ins and outs. To that end, this section should have provisions covering management’s right to organize multiple shifts, ST wages for the 1st eight hours of work (M-F), one and one half time wages for Saturdays, Sundays and holidays , a training day rate less than ST and several more.
Wages and Benefits – Always controversial, many trade union agreements mirror the wage/benefit package that skilled trades receive in the construction industry. This applies mostly to electricians, carpenters and plumbers. The benefit load sometimes exceeds 50% of the wages. This developed because the unions argued that the construction industry regularly experienced ups and downs. The benefit load therefore had to be high in order to help membership through prolonged periods of unemployment. Unions historically and aggressively insisted that the same package apply to trade show and convention workers and were successful. This is a cause for competitive problems – work forces in non-union or right to work states have much lower labor rates. None of their compensation packages are close to those seen in New York, Boston, Chicago or West coast cities.
The most reasonable expectation is to negotiate against benefit funds that clearly only benefit construction workers or funds that have no material purpose, such as a labor/management cooperation fund. Another benefit fund which may have some prospect of reduction is health insurance funds. As Employers you probably over- pay because many union members must meet or exceed a certain number of work hours per quarter in order to be eligible. Of course many union members do not meet the minimum time required to be eligible, yet as employers you paid the benefit.
Grievance and Arbitration Procedures – Insist on rigid administrative procedures (union responsibility) with respect to timing, meetings and written documentation. Make certain that if these procedures are neglected and not followed, then the grievance is deemed waived. Choose an arbitration organization which does not rapidly move towards arbitration hearings. The longer the process the more favorable it is for the Employer. Most grievances are frivolous and are direct challenges to management rights. Unions have the expectation that the Employer always wants to avoid arbitration and will move towards a negotiated settlement instead. In the long run, a prolonged measured process works best. The point is that union administration is not disciplined enough to meet the filing standards for grievances where deadlines must be met with proper documentation and formats. This is cause to have the grievance dismissed without going to arbitration. The lengthy process is another administrative burden which some unions simply don’t have the time and patience for. They generally lose their enthusiasm for the grievance cause after a long wait.
No Strike, No Lock Out – Spell out all the variations of a work slowdown; sick out, an apparent slowdown measured (in %) loss of productivity, unprecedented malingering, etc.
Past Practices – Be very specific that the employer will adhere to the express terms of the CBA and not be bound by past practices.
Other Sections – Miscellaneous (examples):
Shop stewards – All should be working stewards. Outline conduct and work routine of shop Safety rules and equipment must be adhered to at all times.
Cell phones, ear buds, I-Pods cannot be used during work
If you are successful and obtain some or most of the above recommendations in the executed CBA language, then naturally your management team will have to consistently administer the contract in order to make it useful and effective for your business. This is much easier said than done. It requires a structure of policies, rules, enforcement measures, and training. Then the hardest task of all, it demands no compromise. You would be surprised how swiftly a well negotiated CBA can erode by avoiding stressful situations when the appropriate action is to do the opposite, by unwittingly giving the union management responsibilities like asking the shop steward to choose and obtain extra workers, by deciding not to arbitrate against a grievance regarding a work rule because you may lose or the legal costs are too high. The long term cumulative effect of these and other lapses makes the hard work of negotiating futile. Know this – when you take on the responsibilities as a signatory to the CBA, you own that work force and all the responsibilities which are not only expressed but also implied.
NOTE: Contributing to this article was Andy Peterson. Andy is a Senior Partner at the law firm Jackson Lewis, PC. Andy was the Javits Center’s outside labor counsel in 1995 and was the architect of the center’s original Collective Bargaining Agreements. Andy is still a legal advisor on union labor matters to the Javits Center.
How Can We Help?
Reorganizing and negotiating CBAs that better fit and contribute to your business model can be a formidable task for those who have not been through the process. We can provide experienced advice and counsel and help steer your center’s efforts in re-negotiating your CBAs. Call 203-273-6999 or email email@example.com
As part of my consulting practice I either subscribe to newsletters regarding the convention and meetings industry or receive news alerts on related subjects. There are many, and hardly a week goes by when there is not one or more press releases celebrating a city’s booking of an important international event. These are not usual press releases but often newspaper and business journal articles. The articles are all very upbeat as if the city convention bureau had just won a lucrative piece of international business in a very competitive contest. Articles usually conclude with a statement validating the city’s status and place in the world as an international city.
What Are International Association Events?
Market Definition and Size – For this article International association meetings and conferences are owned and operated by not-for profit professional associations. Some of the international event names may sound familiar to you:
- The World Congress of Surgery
- Congress of the World Federation of Physical Therapy
- World Diabetes Congress
- Parliament of the World’s Religions
- World Conference on Lung Cancer
- World Parkinson’s Congress
These associations are recognized as “international” and vetted by the Union of International Associations (UIA). They are carried by the Yearbook of International Organizations (a UIA publication). UIA defines the events or meetings as such:
Meetings taken into consideration include those organized and/or sponsored by the international organizations which appear in the Yearbook of International Organizations and in the International Congress Calendar, i.e. the sittings of their principal organs, congresses, conventions, symposia, regional sessions grouping several countries, as well as some national meetings with international participation organized by national branches of international associations.
In their report, UIA’s international event numbers for 2014 were 12,350. The events in 2014 would play in one of 178 countries and 1,449 cities. The top ten countries and cities for 2015 are shown below:
UIA’s annual International Meetings Statistics Report 57th edition – June 2016 categorizes the events using statistics such as:
- Whether the event is “ organized or sponsored by “international organizations”, i.e. international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) that are included in the UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations and whose details are subject to systematic collection and updates on an annual basis by the UIA”
- Dates and Location
- Size (expressed as number of participants or attendees)
- Percentage of international attendees (40% minimum).
The last bullet above is important because it is the basis for establishing value when compared to domestic events. UIA also maintains a history of each event’s location back to 2001. This date range of event history is essential for determining predictable rotation patterns and calculating probabilities for successful bookings. The only shortcoming we find in the UIA material is that some events are in fact regional. An example is an international association which is in fact a European only association. Their annual conferences will never occur in Asia, Africa, Australia or the Americas. Therefore the UIA summary statistics related to international events not limited to regions are probably overstated.
There are other association and event directories such as the International Convention Centre Association (ICCA). In comparing to UIA there are big differences which we believe are related to the definition of international association events. For our purposes the UIA statistics are the most comprehensive and reliable directory of international events. Clearly any CVB or convention center pursuing events in this market would have to research and drill down in order to eliminate the improbable and focus on the possible. We believe UIA can provide this information. Their research findings and data base is available for a fee (about $1,500). You can also have research available on a continuous basis for a subscriber fee.
Bookings for International Events Comparing North American Cities to the Rest of the World
Without purchasing or referencing UIA’s publications, we were able to find some useful directories which show how competitive North American cities are in booking international events. In this instance we found some timely statistics in two sources:
- The OMICS International Conferences website https://www.omicsonline.org/international-scientific-conferences/ . OMICS International organizes as many as 1,000 International Science conferences. These conferences attract world renowned personalities, scientists, entrepreneurs, budding scientists, students and policy makers. OMICS International organizes Science Congress, World Summits, and International science conferences in India, USA, Dubai, Australia and Europe. OMICS also publishes scientific journals for some of the international associations.
- Reed Elsevier’s website – http://www.globaleventslist.elsevier.com/ .We all know that Reed is the largest producer of trade and professional association events in the world.
The tables below show the number and percentage for individual countries and cities for international scientific, medical and health science and engineering conferences produced in 2016 (later half) and 2017. There are no social or behavioral science events listed. These type events are the most prestigious of international conferences. Overall there are 933 events combined from both sources.
The data in the tables above, because they represent such a small amount of years, lack strong statistical validity and don’t compare with the long term, more comprehensive data that could be obtained by consulting UIA’s data base and research files. The tables above are useful and interesting because they infer how strong the US is in the scientific fields as well as showing destination appeal for the US and certain US cities.
What Criteria Do these Associations Consider in Making Event Location and Venue Decisions?
In many respects the criteria are similar to the criteria used for a tradeshow or domestic association meeting. There are however differences especially the priority of certain criteria. From the literature and case studies we researched, these are the principal and secondary criteria that are evaluated in making event location decisions:
- Air Transport Accessibility
- Direct flights from major centrally located cities
- Cost, Frequency and Duration of Flights – Includes information of necessary connecting flights
- Administrative Barriers – Visa and customs issues
- Local Support
- Welcoming assistance from the local association chapter and other prominent like-professionals and academics. Some cities have gone much further than an opportunistic one-off effort. The term “Ambassador Program” has taken hold. It is defined as a loose association of community leaders in advanced industries and scientific fields used to attract conventions in their specific field. This type of collaboration has been around for many years but in the past few years destinations around the world are now developing the concept more strategically and aggressively. Many European cities have well developed Ambassador Organizations. Washington DC and Vancouver have initiated similar programs and report that they are already yielding success. This program also assumes networking possibilities with local industry leaders.
- Planning, logistic and marketing support from the city CVB
- Subventions (subsidies)
- Perhaps this should be listed first. Those operators in CVBs and convention centers to whom I have spoken with agree that this decision making criteria is the most important. Typical subventions are; meeting venue rent free, free hotel accommodations and meals for association leadership, direct subsidy for marketing and other general expenses, a hosted reception and dinner provided by the hosting city or institution ( a research university is a good example), loans for marketing before registration fees are received, arranged excursions for city tourist sites and venues and shopping.
- Meeting facilities
- Number, size and configuration of meeting rooms
- Appearance of the meeting rooms
- Special services – Advanced A/V, simultaneous translation systems, F&B catering quality
- Advanced communications – Broadband services (WiFi), reliable cell service
- Customer service by venue staff
- The novelty and cultural uniqueness of the city
- Safety and security of the city
- A pleasant climate
- Hotel proximity to meeting venue
- Profitability – At some point the international association is going to take a serious look at how profitable the event would be at a given location. This process and evaluation would take place after a review of proposals.
- Association promotion – The association’s main interest is whether the chosen location would add credibility and prestige to the association and build membership.
Clearly any CVB or convention center pursuing events in this market would have to research and drill down in order to eliminate the improbable and focus on the possible. We believe UIA can provide this information. Their research findings and data base is available for a fee (about $1,500). You can also have research available on a continuous basis for a subscriber fee.
Determining the Economic Value of an International Event
- Direct Spending
Determining economic value is becoming more reliable over the past few years. For cities such as Las Vegas this data is fundamental – so much of the economy depends on it. Also the due diligence required to finance the substantial physical infrastructure projects (airports improvements, public assembly venues, streets and transportation, general civic improvements) demands it. Most cities have an established direct spending figure for trade shows and convention visitors. The figure is derived from surveys and interviews of out-of-town visitors. No city conducts this research in as timely and comprehensive fashion as Las Vegas.For this brief analysis the percentage difference between a foreign and domestic visitor as reported in Las Vegas will be applied. In Las Vegas the percent difference in direct spending is as follows:
The cause for higher International visitor spending is that they stay longer (about 1 day longer, 4.3 vs. 3.3 days) and they spend more. For example, an international visitor spends more than 100% on food and beverages, 250% more shopping and about 50% on entertainment (live shows). One outlier on visitor spending in Las Vegas which doesn’t exist in most US cities is gambling.
The suggestion here is that this or a similar percentage increase be applied when evaluating the value of international events. That is of course unless your city has conducted its own research. Las Vegas is in all cases a good reference check for spending differences and for research methods. Most cities will go on to parse and apply other economic benefits such as indirect spending, tax revenues, or service job creation to arrive at an overall impact number.
- The Prestige Factor
This factor is crucial for cities just developing or improving their tourism economy. International conference, congress and convention goers are business tourists. This adds a gravitas feature to the whole tourism sector. It gives an opportunity for the city and country to show off their airports, urban infrastructure as well as their hospitality sector – hotels, resorts, restaurants, conference and convention facilities, etc. In our research we found this to be often a national cause. Ireland, Cyprus, Malaysia and Korea’s national tourism branches of government all provide generous contributions to their cities and venues to use as subventions in order to attract international events. In sum, hosting international events fulfills national policy aims for recognition as a place to for global business. Global engagement is serious business.For US cities the prestige factor is present but not so pronounced. Some cities have been organized well and have succeeded in capturing a good fraction of the international events market – Chicago, Atlanta, San Antonio, Las Vegas and Philadelphia. For others the industrial sector of an international event may represent a vertical market that represents the city’s economic base. In this respect international events can contribute to economic development of an emerging knowledge based industry.
If you’re Going to Pursue International Conferences, then……..
- Do Proper Research First
- Understand that you’re entering a global competition with many more competitors, some with a great deal of experience. Know that your probability of booking success will be very low at first.
- Look for events with recognizable rotation patterns. See when they rotate to the US and learn where in the US they’ve played before. Be careful of associations that have no pattern but choose locations at random.
- Find what fits – airport/travel scheduling and issues, dates, space, space configurations, sector affinity with your city. The preferred venues are hotels. The cozy, more intimate surroundings are preferable to convention centers. Also, international events tend to be smaller than domestic.
- Do the math. Prepare some simulations. Use actual attendance data from 5 or more international conferences and calculate the economic impact of the event. Make certain that your estimate of international attendees seems reasonable. Highlight the value added for international attendees.
- Don’t expect large crowds. Yes, there are some with recorded attendance of 10,000 up to 18,000. These events are not the norm however. They are mostly well under 5,000 attendees.
- If Your Intention Is to Pursue International Events at Full Bore, You Will Have to Add to Staff and Increase Certain Expenses
- Staff will most likely include a sales manager and assistant, a research manager and an office administrator. You could possibly contract out the research function.
- Expenses besides salary will have to include separate T&E, higher than for domestic bookings, print and graphic services, and a promotional fund to fulfill subventions. About two years ago Washington DC organized to pursue international events. They staffed up in the fashion described above and went to work. In four years the economic impact from international events went from $2.5M in 2011 to $25.5M in 2015.
- If this seems too much or even unnecessary, perhaps a better strategy is to be selective and pursue only the most profitable and economically favorable international events
- Be Prepared for a Heavy Work Load
- Canvassing and pursuing eligibility for RFPs is time consuming and can be expensive. Click on the link to view an RFP for an international event – The World Federation of the Deaf. https://www.wfdeaf.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/WFDConf_2017.pdf
- Preparing your proposal and negotiating until closing is also time consuming and expensive. As an example, click on the link for Barcelona’s proposal for The Conference of The International Biometric Society – http://www.biometricsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/ibs-2018-bid.pdf . This conference only has about 1,200 attendees.
- Organizing, maintaining and nurturing the Ambassador group, which appears to be a prerequisite for competing, takes a great deal of relationship building and persuasion. Your sales and marketing team will ultimately end up managing the group and acting as their administrative arm. Your team will at times perform most of the functions that a domestic trade show or convention management company would.
- Be Thoughtful about How You Will Deal with Subventions
- You won’t be subsidized by the federal government but in order to get a start in the market you may have to agree to subventions you would normally avoid. For small events the subventions are hard to justify. If your occupancy is high and the domestic event market filled with opportunities, then there is no compelling need to agree to expensive subventions. It would be best todisclosethis before entering a competitive bid. Rather, emphasize subventions which can be classifiedasvalue added and steer away from a straight cash subsidy.
- An interesting study of subventions was done by a consulting group in the UK in 2011. The report shows how subventions are material to location decisions and how they affect the competition for international events. You should click on the link below, download and read the report:
- The chart below is from the report and is a summary (although dated) of city practices regarding subventions. It’s a good quick reference.
Providing Air Conditioning and Heat on Exhibit Floors during Event Move In
This is a troublesome issue and always has been. Most recently the subject found itself on the agenda for an annual SISO meeting. My first impression was that SISO would take a policy stand, making it a critical customer service issue and pressing that air conditioning during move in should be provided at no charge. After a brief discussion with SISO leadership I learned that there is no formal SISO policy announcement and that there was true recognition and appreciation for a convention center’s high utility and operating costs.
Convention center designers have never really addressed this problem seriously or more likely, measures to make the event move in environment more tolerable were value engineered out of the project. The problem is generally widespread throughout the country from humidity prone, to bitter cold, to desert heat regions alike.
Why Is this Issue? It Seems Small Compared to All that Matters
- Excessive Heat and Humidity or Cold During Move In Is a Serious Customer Service Problem
Exhibitors face many challenges during event move in; anticipating freight arrival, exhibit construction, testing equipment, final rehearsals, etc. Adding the annoyance of excessively hot or cold and uncomfortable conditions is poor customer service.
- Providing Air Conditioning During Move In Is Very Expensive During the Summer
Commercial electrical rate schedules are higher for summer months. In New York City for example peak months are June through September. Along with peak months there are peak hours. Utilities call this time of day rates covering daytime periods generally 8AM to 4 or 6PM, Monday through Friday (weekday holidays normally excluded). These rates .for electrical consumption (KWH) can be 30% -50% higher than non-peak hours.Electrical demand rates are also applied in the same manner as consumption. Depending on where you’re located, commercial demand rates can be 60% to more than 100% higher than demand rates during non-peak months.
- (Atlanta) Georgia Power – Large Commercial Rates – Summer TOD
Assume air conditioning requires 4,000 Tons of refrigeration for 500,000 gross square feet of exhibition space on a weekday in July
Consumption (KWH): 4,000 Tons x 1.5 KW/Ton = 6,000 KW
6,000 KW x 10 hours = 60,000 KWH
60,000 KWH x $.07264/KWH = $4,358/Day
Demand (KW): 6,000 KW x $10.43/KW = $62,580*
Total Cost per Day: $4,358 + $62,580 = $66,938
*Demand charges only apply if the day’s demand (in a 15 or 30 minute interval) is
the highest for the monthly billing period. Fuel adjustment charges not in
- (New York City) NYPA and ConEd – NYPA for consumption or KWH purchased through the open market (NY is a de-regulated state). Con ED for distribution charges (demand)
Assume air conditioning requires 4,000 Tons of refrigeration for 500,000 gross square feet of exhibition space on a weekday in July
Consumption (KWH): 5,000 Tons x 1.5 KW/Ton = 6,000 KW
6,000 KW x 10 hours = 60,000 KWH
60,000 KWH x $.08/KWH = $4,800/Day
Demand (KW): 6,000 KW x $23.04/KW = $138,240*
Total Cost per Day: $4,800 + $138,240 = $143,040
*Demand charges only apply if the day’s demand (in a 15 or 30 minute interval)
is the highest for the monthly billing period. Taxes and fuel adjustment
charges not in calculations
The rates from Atlanta are relatively low. New York City rates are among the highest in the country. If anything, the above proves that air conditioning during move in days is no small matter. For show managers, paying for electrical consumption during move in is reasonable, paying for demand is not. In my time at the Javits Center I have seen monthly demand charges exceed $250,000. That was for a full building show (over 800,000 gross square feet, in August). Convention center should never permit a move in day to become the highest day of the billing period for electric demand when it could be avoided.
- Most Show Managers Can Understand the Economics of Peak Hour Costs for Electrical Consumption But Not So for Electrical Demand
Most annual convention center budgets have forecasted and factored in summer electrical demand charges. Facility managers know that there are not many opportunities for demand reduction measures like shedding loads as demand rises after the event begins. Seizing an opportunity to reduce summer demand charges therefore should not be missed. Imagine being in a situation where the move in day is hot and humid but the overnight forecast calls for a cool dry air mass for the event days. Imagine being in a situation where the move in day is on a Friday in July and the event is scheduled for a three day weekend with Monday as a holiday – no demand charges. The monthly savings can be substantial. From time to time an issue may arise where at the last minute a show manager asks for air conditioning on a move in day well after peak hour pricing has begun. Facility managers do not want to start a central plant (chillers, pumps, air handlers, etc.) during peak hours. Doing so puts you at risk that a move in day will become the maximum billing day for demand that month, the savings opportunity lost. Chiller plants normally draw a lot of demand as they approach the chilled water set point. After they reach that point, demand generally diminishes. In this circumstance you would have to provide less than 100%.
Recommended Best Practices
- Unless there are special circumstances you are advised not to provide air conditioning or heat during move in to event management at no charge. Most centers do charge. Some such as Mandalay Bay and the Mirage Convention Centers in Las Vegas provide air conditioning at no charge for the last event move in day. Some of you to whom I have spoken with say that at their center this matter is purposely left flexible. That may be a useful internal policy but it should be kept confidential, because the opposite is likely to happen, it won’t be flexible. Show managers are tough negotiators; they will sense an opportunity and persuade you to absorb the cost. There should be a clear written policy for charging for air conditioning and heat on move in days
- Do not make air conditioning and heat during move in part of the rent. Too often rent is negotiated down in order to maintain and improve market share or to accommodate a large event where the overall economic impact is very high. Also, there are circumstances where temperature and humidity ranges need to be controlled during move in. A commercial produce show is an example. Air conditioning charges during move in should be specified as a separate item in the license agreement,
- Make the charges for air conditioning and heat during move ins fair, enough to cover consumption charges from utilities,
- Always supply some air conditioning, say 15% with exhaust fans and a few supply fans at no charge. Set a floor temperature goal of the low to mid 80’s for floor temperatures. For heating, do likewise and supply heat from air handlers adjacent to outside freight doors at no charge.
- Take steps to manage demand on your own:
- If the show manager won’t purchase air conditioning for move in days when high heat and humidity are forecast, pre-cool the space several hours before the move in starts and when non-peak rates are in effect. Keep the freight doors closed, close outside air dampers as no fresh air is necessary until the space is occupied. Then just before peak rates apply, reduce most of the air conditioning operations and follow the practices from the bullet above.ASHRAE has written a few white papers on pre-cooling. Below is an excerpt:
Night precooking involves the circulation of cool air within a building during the nighttime hours with the intent of cooling the structure. The cooled structure is then able to serve as a heat sink during the daytime hours, reducing the mechanical cooling required. The naturally occurring thermal storage capacity of the building is thereby utilized to smooth the load curve and for potential energy savings.
My experience is that this works for about 5 or 6 hours. Some level of air conditioning will may have to be left on.
- If show management elects to purchase air conditioning for move in days, then pre-cool as outlined above only earlier. Do not commit to a floor temperature in the low to mid 70’s, the high 70’s and low 80’s are more achievable. On hot humid days this will also prevent ceiling drips from pipe and ductwork condensation. Pre-cooling should wash the humidity out of the building and provide positive pressure throughout. This should work to control electric demand. This should be done along with the items below regarding doors.
- Exercise strict control over the freight doors. Close those that are not being well used. You should find most general decorating companies cooperative.
- Consider transparent weather strips at the most used doors. They are an inexpensive fix but usually need to be changed frequently to maintain good visibility.
- If the show manager won’t purchase air conditioning for move in days when high heat and humidity are forecast, pre-cool the space several hours before the move in starts and when non-peak rates are in effect. Keep the freight doors closed, close outside air dampers as no fresh air is necessary until the space is occupied. Then just before peak rates apply, reduce most of the air conditioning operations and follow the practices from the bullet above.ASHRAE has written a few white papers on pre-cooling. Below is an excerpt:
- Investments that Work
- The Washington DC Convention Center normally does not charge for air conditioning during move in days. To control costs they have converted their freight doors into “speed doors”
- Washington has also connected one or two of their large chillers to an on-site generator. They can elect to air condition exhibit floors using their own power, avoiding peak hour consumption and demand costs.
- Some may say that air curtains work but my experience has been that the large ones for freight doors are too drafty and noisy
- Years ago designers at Cobo Hall designed a transition space between the loading dock doors and the exhibit floor. The barrier of a demising wall and inline freight doors helps temperature control on the exhibit floor.
- In the 1990’s McCormick Place made a major investment in chilled water storage, producing chilled water at night and circulating it for a full days use. They also supply chilled water to other customers beyond the convention center. McCormick also uses Lake Michigan water for condenser water, no cooling towers.
9/11 at the Javits Center
Last week marked 15 years. We know now that the attack wasn’t just a one-time thing and now all convention centers have legitimate concerns about terrorism during an event. The Javits Center was a few miles from the attack but we had a view of the planes hitting and the WTC towers falling. The Javits Center did play a role in the aftermath, providing logistical support to the rescue, recovery and security teams. I believe we were able to use our assets effectively and in a small way contribute to the recovery effort.
The account below was written by me 6 years ago.
Over the years many have asked if we could write an account of what happened to us that day. Our experience was insignificant compared to the events of that day, but perhaps there’s some lessons learned here if not an interesting story.
We had four events in the house that day; a large merchandise show on the lower level to open at 9AM, a store fixture and display show on the main level to open at 9:30AM, a commercial flower show also on the main level for the second move in day, and set up for a product roll out for an office technology company on the upper level. After the first plane hit at 8:45 AM the AGM called and told me he had a bad feeling about it, no one flies into the side of the World Trade Center on a bright clear day. Neither the local news nor CNN which was being broadcast on all public monitors had any news on the real cause. The AGM called again and insisted that I go up to the Crystal Palace and view what was occurring downtown and in the center itself. I was at the base of the escalator to the Crystal Palace at 9:03 AM. The view from the Javits Center had the two Trade Center towers overlapping so, if you weren’t familiar, it may appear as one large building. The second plane hit. The horizontal plume of flame and smoke made it look as if this was a secondary explosion from the first plane. CNN quickly corrected that. Both towers were aflame.
A quick meeting with all the show managers was assembled and we informed them that we were shutting down the loading docks and that there would be controlled access through the front entrances – attendees would have to go through designated doors under the view of Javits Security and State Police. There would be random checks of handbags and brief cases. We set a meeting time for 30 minutes later or sooner if we obtained any information. There were few questions and no one complained. Although unsaid, I believe everyone in the meeting had the sense that something menacing and ominous was going on downtown. It was about 9:20 AM.
Internal staff met for a time to organize radio procedures and to review evacuation plans. There was still no official word from the State Police about what was happening. All news came from CNN. We had arranged the show floor plans and compared them to the evacuation routes just before we made our way to the next information meeting with the show managers when CNN reported that the Pentagon had been hit. It was about 9:45 AM.
The big decisions were easy now and the meeting was brief. We would evacuate the center immediately; exhibitors, attendees and contractors were to follow the directions of Javits Security and the State Police since due to the loading dock closure some of the routes had changed. We would meet with show managers again as soon as practical. Everyone nodded in consent and the meeting ended. At 10:05 AM the South Tower collapsed and we saw everything disappear in an enormous cloud of dust. By 10:15 AM the Javits Center was evacuated. We estimate there were between 5,000 to 6,000 people. Then, at 10:28 AM the North Tower collapsed.
In the following hour tidbits of news and rumors came and went. We had a short lived moment of panic when news came down that the bridges and tunnels were likely targets too. The south tube of the Lincoln Tunnel was 25 feet below Hall 1A. The State Police quickly communicated with Port Authority Police and we learned that the Tunnel was evacuated and inspected. We were safe. Staff was dismissed and key people were selected to remain. Many volunteered to stay. At 11:02, the mayor ordered the evacuation of Lower Manhattan. What was happening was unbelievable.
At about noon, city emergency service personnel arrived and asked for help. They were covered in dust and soot. The only clean part of their faces was inside the outline of the face masks that they had been wearing. They needed to set up a triage center and a field hospital as soon as possible. While we explored the internet for plans, building maintenance staff quickly began to set up portable utilities, lighting and furnishings in the North Pavilion. Within the hour a medical team arrived. They left shortly afterward and headed off downtown. The casualties and injured would be handled closer to the WTC site. At about 1 PM one of our managers called me up to the South roof. The scene was like a war movie. A stream of people as far South as I could see were walking North on 12th Ave. From the heights they appeared as a ribbon of refugees fleeing a city under siege. The cloud of smoke from the World Trade Center was behind them.
The remainder of the day saw emergency crews arrive at Javits. At one point in order to create more space, the remaining managers and maintenance personnel took forklifts and hand trucks to move out the partially installed exhibit booths from the commercial flower show on the main level. Emergency crews came from New Jersey, that evening teams of “smoke jumpers” arrived from out West, teams of rescue dogs and their handlers arrived from all across the country and Canada, a large contingent of New York State Troopers arrived and finally the New York State National Guard. Our team set out utilities; electric, phone lines, internet lines, portable showers, etc., etc. Centerplate’s GM was busy too. That evening he prepared over 300 chicken and rice dinners. He had sent all his employees home and did this all by himself.
The next few days were like a blur. Rescue teams came and went. Javits became the storehouse for supplies, lots of bottled water and pet supplies for the dogs. We were announced as the rallying point for volunteers and they came by the thousands; tradesmen carrying tools, doctors carrying their medical kits, even a few crazies. The only volunteers needed that I recall were operating room nurses and welders trained for work in confined spaces. The President arrived one day to meet with the families of the dead and missing. A planned 1 hour visit became a 5 hour visit.
We learned that nothing can replace a well trained team of managers and skilled workers. We learned how invaluable it is to have permanently stationed police on site. It gives your actions in an emergency a strong sense of legitimacy. Convention center designers should remember that. We learned that convention centers because of their scale, large spaces, utility capacity and access are logical places to use when there’s a general emergency. I know it sounds trite because it’s so often said, but we learned that people really do rise to the occasion when necessary and with a spirit I hadn’t seen before. We learned that trouble creates its own capacity to handle it.
God Bless America.
Why Is this a Good Idea?
I have often been confused why more convention centers do not actively engage in an advertising and sponsorship program as a revenue stream. Perhaps it’s viewed as a business more appropriate for others; sports and entertainment venues are the logical setting for advertising and sponsorships, not convention centers. Sports stadiums and arenas and their tenant teams – football, baseball, basketball, hockey, etc., all have a loyal fan base and fans are very emotionally connected. Television and radio coverage are integral parts of the sports experience. These things don’t exist at convention centers and convention center management may not feel it’s worth the effort. I also believe there’s reluctance by some convention center management to use ad space and media that were once exclusive domain of event managers and then, charge fees and commissions for features that were once free.
My belief is that if convention centers who feel this way would conduct a thoughtful evaluation of the benefits and risks, they may change their minds.
Benefits – A well crafted ad and sponsorship program:
- Contributes a level of legitimacy with respect to the convention center being a place of business, where new products and services are rolled out and demonstrated in a setting where comparisons can be made, where deals are done, where technical and scientific information exchanged, and where like minded professionals can network and socialize.
- Strengthens the business relationships with others in the city hospitality sector. Restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, shopping districts, and other cultural and entertainment venues are likely advertising and sponsorship candidates. Having the relationship solidified by an advertising agreement helps achieve that. The character of the relationship would be different; it won’t be casual or shallow anymore, it will now be business.
- Can become a reliable revenue source which may waver up and down with the vagaries of the economy but can grow in stable and growth years. There are a few convention centers where an advertising and sponsorship program has contributed between $1 – 2 million to the bottom line annually.
- Know that many times brands are judged by the company they keep; remember this, it will come up again. Many times an advertiser or sponsor’s business issues, such as product problems, legal issues, and financial problems become your problems. This is especially true if it’s a naming rights sponsor. Choose potential advertisers and sponsors wisely. Understand that advertisers and especially sponsors may view the convention center similarly. Convention centers are accountable to them for bad publicity and for routine items such as signage and website maintenance, or for the overall condition of the facility. Sponsors too will always be interested in their return on investment and review the returns periodically.
- An overly aggressive ad and sponsorship program can pose some problems with your trade show and association meeting clients; too much signage by advertisers takes away from space available for an event’s trade dress signage and decoration and their own sponsor advertising, inflexible terms regarding advertising and product exclusivity by sponsors may interfere with an events’ exhibitors or their sponsorship sales. Also, critics may argue that over-commercialization with garish signage and endless brand messaging detracts from the convention center’s mission. It’s best to exercise good taste and a sense of propriety here.
- An advertising and sponsorship program is very visible to others and potential event clients. An ineffective and feeble program where advertisers and sponsors are few detracts from the center’s reputation. If, after evaluation, you do not believe you can achieve revenue goals and visibility then perhaps you should forego the effort.
Taking Stock – What Is Your Inventory of Advertising Possibilities and Media?
- The Center’s Location – Is it located by and in view of major traffic thoroughfares? If so, call the municipality and obtain a daily traffic count. Pedestrian counts may also be available.
- The Center’s Architecture – Normally the entrance is a piece of landmark architecture. The curtain walls are high, there is usually an array of light or flag poles along the entrance drive, and the adjacent sidewalks are wide. All are possibilities for banners and signage.
- Fixed Static or LED Signage (usually located by the center’s entrance) – These signs normally announce the event(s) in-house, but have fixed signage possibilities as part of the sign structure or in the case of an LED sign, use possibilities due to the technology.
- Center entrance, atrium, lobbies and concourses – All have high curtain walls and space frame features for banner hanging
- Well trafficked corridors – Recommend a limited number of high quality back-lit signage
- Center video screens – Large video screens are best located in the expansive entranceways, atriums and lobbies where the scale fits the setting. Smaller video screens are more appropriately located along well trafficked corridors, retail areas, taxi/shuttle bus waiting areas and food courts. The screens are normally part of a network, complete with a control room, equipment room and the capability of running different messaging (pre-programmed) for each screen.
- Columns in atrium and lobbies
- Public stair risers – Normally temporary and done with 3M product with adhesive back
- Escalator side panels and railings
- Taut cables over escalator wells for banner hanging
- Displays adjacent to Information and Concierge Stations
- Ads and wraps at water coolers and phone/tablet charging stations
- Food Court table tops – Using the same adhesive backed 3M product
- The convention center’s website – Banner ads, column and button ads on the most popular pages (event schedule, public transportation and driving directions and map). A restaurant directory as well as one for hotels, nightclubs and other attractions should be part of the website. Some convention center websites do an excellent job of posting these directories. View the San Diego Convention Center’s restaurant directory:
- The center’s mobile app
- The center’s WiFi Portal (opening page)
- Blogs, newsletters, annual reports, direct mail pieces
- The center’s social media (Facebook page, Twitter Feeds, Instagram, YouTube, etc.)
- Exhibitor Manuals and Order Forms
- Opportunities to publicly display product – A luxury car in the center’s atrium is a good example
- Collateral reading material and brochures at concierge/information desks
- Portable cups and napkins in the food courts
Reserving Inventory Exclusively for Events – How much inventory should be reserved for them? The short answer is – any place public that has height and visibility (exterior, curtain walls, light poles, etc.). A well organized center will publish a guide with diagrams showing locations and standards for sign and banner hanging.
Charging Event Management Fees for Advertising Outside of Their Licensed Space – This is an excellent revenue source, at times comprising half of the center’s ad and sponsorship revenue. Most event managers already use most available locations. Besides their own trade dress and directional banners, in many instances they use these locations to sell advertising to their event sponsors, normally in the form of large fabric banners, stair risers, free standing displays, etc. Ten years ago most convention centers permitted events to sell ads to exhibitors using all the aforementioned media and signage without paying location fees to the convention center. I am pleased to see that many convention centers have ceased this practice and now charge fees and commissions. Convention centers which still offer this for free should be well advised to stop the practice. As controversial as it may seem, the architectural prominence and visibility that was created by public investment and the value it creates for such things as advertising banners gives convention centers clear entitlement to reasonable fees. Use of public areas for the sale of advertising to others is normally not part of the event manager’s license agreement. Fees should be a percentage of fees collected by the event managers from their client (say 15%). In the case of public space banners, the percentage arrangement is sometimes not satisfactory. For convention centers, it’s much easier to audit and collect based on size. Exterior banners should be charged a higher rate (say 20%). Ads for other media, such as the Center’s Wifi hotspot “splash” page, use of the Center’s monitors, food court table tops, etc. should be negotiated at market prices.
What’s the Difference between Sponsorships and Advertising?
A corporate sponsorship is a form of marketing where companies connect their name, brand, and products and services to a venue for long term in order to enhance their brand, solidify and expand their markets, showcase their products and achieve future profits. It should not be confused with advertising which is direct and overt and contractually a shorter term. In sponsorships, advertising through signage is inclusive, just one element in a sponsorship plan. A well designed sponsorship generates a stronger and more subtle message. It tends to be more qualitative and has loftier goals than just customer exposure and sales. It is a marketing platform where a company can identify with the best aspects of its partner, where a company can build credibility, prestige and, create a more permanent, lasting bond with consumers.
Who Are the Potential Sponsors?
It’s useful to first separate potential sponsors from ad hoc advertisers. Sponsors should be companies that have a tangible connection and can be easily integrated into a convention center’s core business and culture. There are however more subjective considerations. There has to be the proper feel and fit. It’s difficult to define but it comes down to whether the corporate image is one that complements the convention center, the city and vice versa. While the company should obviously be prosperous, they also need to have a certain brand reputation for reliability and quality, and a high corporate standard for civic responsibility.
Certain industries seem to fit as ideal sponsorship candidates. They are; an airline with a regional or national hub at the city’s airport, a major credit card company, a regional bank which has a solid customer and investment base in and around the city, a utility, a major technology/telecommunications company (preferably one that designs and manufactures, and operates equipment), a media company (preferably local newspaper or TV station), a luxury car company and a long standing major employer for the region. If your convention center is large and busy, then a soft drink sponsor, with exclusivity for advertising and product sales (pouring rights), also makes sense.
Some sponsorship marketing consultants, such as Jim Andrews from ESP Properties in Chicago (www.sponsorship.com) favor technology companies above others. His view is that these companies are in a growth mode, spend heavily on marketing and are generally open to venue sponsorships often seeking these opportunities out, particularly sports and entertainment venues. Another consultant, Hugh Wakeham from WAM Associates in Toronto (www.wam.ca/) believes similarly but also sees regional banks and utilities as excellent candidates. He described an interesting case study of naming rights where a utility company Enercare has naming rights to the convention center at Exhibition Place in Toronto. Enercare uses this sponsorship to demonstrate and promote Green technologies. On site for instance, windmills generate electricity and electricity, hot water/steam and chilled water are generated by a gas fired Tri-Generation power plant.
Sponsors will of course require something more than company name and brand exposure through signage. It is useful to have a list of other things that a sponsor could benefit from such as; exposure on your digital media (website, newsletters, blogs, twitter feeds and WiFi portal, etc.), free passes and parking to popular events that they can distribute to employees and clients, free use of public space to show or demonstrate a product, credits for rent, parking and F&B for an event like a corporate sales or board meeting. You may have to be creative here. As mentioned earlier sponsors pay close attention to their return on investment. There are items the convention center can track on their own such as product sales on site if applicable and hyperlink openings and page views. It is very likely that a sponsor may ask and possibly tie the result to renewal and fee negotiations. In my time at the Javits Center, it was common for our soft drink sponsor, Coke, to conduct a business review and focus on cases sold per year. The Director of Marketing and Communications at the Shaw Centre in Ottawa, Sylvie Carbonneau, described how their luxury car sponsor, Porsche/Audi, tracked sales based on their car displays at the centre.
For convention centers a successful sponsorship consists of cash and/or a capital contribution (which could be cash or in-kind – telecommunications/internet equipment for example), some accommodation for day to day operations (airline ticket credits for business travel or discounted utilities), cooperative marketing when these opportunities come up and a long contract term 3 to 5 years with renewal options.
Who Are the Potential Advertisers?
A quick list should show the categories below and be accompanied by a map denoting walking time from the convention center and headquarter hotel (normally 15-20 minutes):
- Restaurants – These can be categorized by type of restaurant, ratings of same, price point and distance from major hotels and the convention center
- Parking Lots and Garages
- Professional Sports Venues
- Concert Venues
- Cultural Attractions (art galleries, museums, historical sites)
Other advertisers could be car rental companies, an office and hardware retail outlet, exhibit service companies – general decorating companies, exhibit appointed contractors, A/V companies, computer/technical supply retail outlets. Advertisers, especially in categories where there are many like restaurants, are typically put in easy to read directories which accessible through the center’s website, mobile app and WiFi portal. In my experience, advertisers normally didn’t track ROI closely. As with sponsorships, the convention center should track hyperlink openings and page views because it is likely that an advertiser may ask and possibly tie the result to renewal and fee negotiations.
A Sample Pro Forma
For the example below:
- Sponsor revenue is based on the Javits Center experience and informal conversations with other convention centers in my consulting business.
- Advertising revenue is based on my time at the Javits Center and price schedules from convention centers published on the internet. The number of restaurants, parking lots, hotels and attractions is based on those published on the Davis L. Lawrence Convention Center (Pittsburgh) website.
- Revenue obtained from fees for commercial advertising sold by event managers in public areas and video/digital media is estimated based on the Javits Center experience. Assume that the center’s occupancy in this example is high, say 60-65%. It was then estimated that 15 events would sell exhibitor advertising in public areas of the convention center;
10 events x $50,000 in sales = $500,000 5 events x $75,000 in sales = $375,000
$375,000 x 15% fee = $56,250 $375,000 x 15% fee = $56,250
$75,000 = $56,250 = $131,250 (estimated total)
*Venue obligation includes;
On-site signage, possibly on-site retail
On site video time – large and small screens
Product exclusivity, possibly advertising exclusivity (w/qualifications)
Social media exposure (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube)
Mobile APP Ad
Rent, F&B, Parking Credits
Free passes to public events
Cost of above –
– Sales Comm – 5%
– Credits (lost revenue) – $5,000
*Venue obligation includes;
Social media exposure (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, etc.)
Advertising exclusivity for beer and wine
Mobile APP Directory
WiFi portal directory
Concierge/Information Booth Display and Menu Catalog
On site video time large and small screens – not included in 6 mo fee schedule above; pricing should be at premium levels
Cost of above –
– Sales Comm – 10%
How to Get Started – Logical Next Steps
Assuming you have already weighed the benefits and risks and reviewed the market size for sponsors and advertisers, these are logical next steps:
- Obtain price schedules from other convention centers that have an active advertising and sponsorship program in place.
- Build your own pricing model
- Build a pro forma statement
- Determine who will do all the administration and sales work. Understand that the sales work is hard work; developing marketing material, making cold calls, making site visits, and price negotiations. Add to that having patience; it will take more than a year to build revenue. Options are; outsourcing, Integrating the responsibility into existing sales force or add to staff with a new hire
- Obtain board approval in the form of a policy statement. This is important for two reasons; board members are a good resource for potential sponsors and advertisers and obtaining advertisers and sponsors may be regulated by government procurement procedures which really do not apply to this business function, board approval may help avoid this.
- From the city government, obtain traffic counts and pedestrian counts for adjacent streets and sidewalks. From your website administrator obtain internet traffic statistics. Invest in a survey to develop a demographic profile of attendees who normally come to events at the convention center. Typically they are business men and women between the age of 30 – 45 with a higher than average annual income.
- Develop marketing material. The link below from the Shaw Centre in Ottawa is a good example:
- Develop a face to face marketing message and a sales plan. The marketing message should be one of optimism, one that emphasizes positive changes such as an expansion or renovation, or an investment in video screens and digital technology, or the organizing of a staff to administer and look after the needs of sponsors. Persuade them of your resolve; show them that there is a parity of commitment, that the convention center has “skin in the game”.
- Begin work and monitor progress
All About Convention Center Naming Rights
Establishing Naming Rights Value
It’s easy to be lured into believing that naming rights as a financial bonus for convention centers. Decision makers may be influenced by media reporting and tend to overlook that only the global level deals are reported. They hear about deals like the Barclay Center ( Brooklyn Arena-Brooklyn Net home w/18,000 seats) valued at $200M over 20 years or the American Airlines Center (Home of NBA’s Dallas Mavericks) for $195M for 30 years. In these instances they must realize that the team’s market area is significant with a fan base which is loyal and reliable and stretches to anywhere television and radio can reach. Still, it’s hard not to think about the possibilities and I believe, beyond the blockbuster deals, at some point linear thinking takes over. They see their hometown arena achieve a significant naming rights deal in a small market area and they start thinking and believing their convention center can do likewise. As an example, the Chesapeake Energy Center in Oklahoma City (home the NBA’s Thunder w/18,000 seats) obtained a naming rights deal of $36M for 12 years. The Cox Convention Center across town has 100,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space and a 15,000 seat arena (w/ minor league hockey and an arena football team) and obtained a naming rights deal valued at $1.7M for 7 years, nothing linear about that. Linear thinking doesn’t work when comparing naming rights values to major league sports.
Linear thinking doesn’t appear to work when comparing the values of existing naming rights deals for convention centers either. If you study the table below you will see that it is very difficult to see any sense using valuation methods (cost, income or market valuation) when it comes to establishing a convention center’s naming rights value. The comparisons are too few, the market sizes and the venue sizes too diverse to see patterns. Additionally some relatively small markets have achieved surprising value; the HY-Vee Exhibition Hall in Des Moines is a good example ($8million with a term of 10 years).
From the current number of naming rights deals (14) the following characteristics are evident:
- Naming rights deals were closed during or after new, expanded or major renovations took place.
- The core market areas for most companies holding naming rights are regional. One reason to pursue naming rights is to maintain and solidify the markets they already have. For those who are not historically regional, their eye is on expansion to new regional markets. This was the case for naming rights deals in Niagara Falls, CA – Scotiabank Convention Centre and Ottawa CA – the Shaw Centre.
- Most are for 2nd tier markets in the US. I am convinced that convention centers in 2nd tier markets in the US are the best naming rights candidates.
- Proportionally Canadian convention centres are more likely to pursue and successfully close on naming rights in 1st and 2nd tier markets than the US
- The financial sector (banks, finance companies and insurance) have the highest percentage at 57%, technology companies next at 22%, then utility companies at 14%. At one point an airline held naming rights but that contract has lapsed.
- About 40% of the naming rights holders were acquired by other companies during the naming rights term. Expect name changes.
What’s in a Name?
For a convention center, I think there’s a whole lot in a name. It may sound trivial and shallow but the sound and the emotional response of a name can result in a name that can be so inappropriate, awkward and some say hideous that it is cause for public embarrassment and ridicule. There are many examples; The KFC YUM! Center in Louisville, Whataburger Field in Corpus Christi, Smoothie King Center in New Orleans and the Bargain Booze Stadium in the UK. Fortunately none of these venues is a convention center. One convention center in Des Moines had a naming rights deal with the final name being the Veteran’s Memorial Community Choice Credit Union Convention Center. In my opinion the name is an awkward mouthful. Common sense prevailed in this instance and the exterior sign remained The Veterans Memorial with the longer version seen less prominently in the interior of the facility.
The Inherent Difficulties for 1st Tier US City Convention Centers Pursuing Naming Rights
The success rate shows and I am convinced that convention centers in 2nd and 3rd tier markets in the US are the best naming rights candidates. Not long after new management took over the operation of the Javits Center in 1996, a private conversation regarding Javits progress took place where I was present. .By chance the subject of naming rights came up. Business at the center was turning favorable rapidly and the idea of naming rights seemed a natural. The conversation ended but no subsequent actions were discussed or planned. Within days, a bill was introduced in the NY State legislature prohibiting any attempt for a name change to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. I am certain no one at the meeting talked about it and clearly the draft of that legislation was prepared long before our meeting took place. So I learned how these matters evolve. I believe wise and experienced convention center managers at 1st tier convention centers know in advance the likely outcome if naming rights are aggressively pursued. If the center bears the name of a beloved and respected political leader, alive or dead, the effort will be mired in controversy. Potential naming rights sponsors will steer clear of the controversy and convention center leadership will be happy to oblige. If the center only bears the city’s name it is possible that the potential deal value will drive an action plan. Expect pride of place advocates to object to a name change. If that doesn’t discourage the effort, government procurement procedures pose another impediment. Acquiring naming rights is not on any company’s annual marketing budget. Candidates for naming rights have to be courted and persuaded; a process that does not fit into the typical RFP process. This process needs to be conducted quietly whereas the RFP process is blatantly public and gives cause for a company to decline to bid. Convention centers should also seek out the services of a marketing consultant, one who has closed naming rights deals before and understands the language and nuances of naming rights valuation. In my experience and in all the research I conducted, none of the naming rights deals closed by following a traditional RFP process and most sought the help of a marketing consultant.
Recommendation – An Alternate Idea to Full Facility Naming Rights
There are some excellent examples of convention centers where portions of the centers are offered for naming rights. The David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh sold rights to its 34,000 sq. ft. ballroom to Dollar Bank for $1M and a term of 5 years. The Dollar Bank graciously named the ballroom “The Spirit of Pittsburgh” and installed several displays depicting the history of Pittsburgh throughout the center. At the Colorado Convention Center in Denver naming rights to its 5,000 seat concert theater were sold to Bellco for $1.25M at a term of 5 years. There are discrete and iconic architectural spaces that have naming rights potential in many convention centers; an elegantly designed ballroom, an outside terrace or garden used for special events, an architecturally prominent lobby, a new meeting room suite or technologically advanced boardroom. Convention centers which are very large and subdivided into separate buildings offer unique opportunities for naming rights. Imagine the four principal buildings of McCormick Place (the North, South, West and Lakeside Center) bearing corporate names. The tradition and integrity of the McCormick Place name stays in place and an excellent revenue prospect is exploited. I see similar possibilities at the Orange County Convention Center, the Vancouver Convention and Exhibition Centre and the Moscone Center.